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Cognitive Ability and Scale Bias in the Contingent Valuation Method

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Abstract

This study investigates whether or not the scale bias found in contingent valuation (CVM) studies on mortality risk reductions is a result of cognitive constraints among respondents. Scale bias refers to insensitivity and non near-proportionality of the respondents' willingness to pay (WTP) to the size of the risk reduction. Two hundred Swedish students participated in an experiment where their cognitive ability was tested before they took part in a CVM-study where they were asked about their WTP to reduce bus-mortality risk. The results imply that WTP answers from respondents with a higher cognitive ability are less flawed by scale bias.

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  • Andersson, Henrik & Svensson, Mikael, 2006. "Cognitive Ability and Scale Bias in the Contingent Valuation Method," Working Papers 2006:2, Swedish National Road & Transport Research Institute (VTI).
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:vtiwps:2006_002
    Note: This paper has been revised and has been replaced by Working Paper 2007:1.
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    Cited by:

    1. Andersson, Henrik & Hole, Arne Risa & Svensson, Mikael, 2016. "Valuation of small and multiple health risks: A critical analysis of SP data applied to food and water safety," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 41-53.
    2. Henrik Andersson & Mikael Svensson, 2008. "Cognitive ability and scale bias in the contingent valuation method," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 39(4), pages 481-495, April.
    3. Henrik Andersson & Mikael Svensson, 2014. "Scale sensitivity and question order in the contingent valuation method," Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 57(11), pages 1746-1761, November.
    4. Krüger, Niclas A & Svensson, Mikael, 2007. "The Impact of Real Options on Willingness to Pay for Investments in Road Safety," Working Papers 2007:9, Örebro University, School of Business, revised 17 Oct 2008.
    5. Henrik Andersson & Nicolas Treich, 2011. "The Value of a Statistical Life," Chapters,in: A Handbook of Transport Economics, chapter 17 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    6. Ji Yong Lee & Rodolfo M. Nayga, Jr & Cary Deck & Andreas Drichoutis, 2017. "Cognitive Ability and Bidding Behavior in Second Price Auctions: An Experimental Study," Working Papers 2017-3, Agricultural University of Athens, Department Of Agricultural Economics.
    7. Sund, Björn, 2009. "Sensitivity to scope in contingent valuation – introducing a flexible community analogy to communicate mortality risk reductions," Working Papers 2009:2, Örebro University, School of Business.
    8. Jacob Ladenburg & Søren Bøye Olsen, 2010. "Gender anomalies in Stated Preference surveys – Are biases really gender dependent?," IFRO Working Paper 2010/1, University of Copenhagen, Department of Food and Resource Economics.
    9. Haddak, Mohamed Mouloud & Lefèvre, Marie & Havet, Nathalie, 2016. "Willingness-to-pay for road safety improvement," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 1-10.
    10. Persson, Mattias & Svensson, Mikael, 2013. "The willingness to pay to reduce school bullying," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 1-11.
    11. Hultkrantz, Lars & Svensson, Mikael, 2012. "The value of a statistical life in Sweden: A review of the empirical literature," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 108(2), pages 302-310.
    12. Krüger, Niclas A. & Svensson, Mikael, 2009. "The impact of real options on willingness to pay for mortality risk reductions," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 563-569, May.
    13. Henrik Andersson & James Hammitt & Gunnar Lindberg & Kristian Sundström, 2013. "Willingness to Pay and Sensitivity to Time Framing: A Theoretical Analysis and an Application on Car Safety," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 56(3), pages 437-456, November.
    14. Marielle Brunette, 2012. "Do risk communication methods perform to generate rationality?," Working Papers - Cahiers du LEF 2012-01, Laboratoire d'Economie Forestiere, AgroParisTech-INRA.
    15. Olofsson , Sara & Gerdtham, Ulf-G. & Hultkrantz, Lars & Persson, Ulf, 2016. "Dread and Risk Elimination Premium for the Value of a Statistical Life," Working Papers 2016:22, Lund University, Department of Economics.
    16. Olofsson, Sara & Gerdtham , Ulf-G & Hultkrantz , Lars & Persson , Ulf, 2016. "Chained Approach vs Contingent Valuation for Estimating the Value of Risk Reduction," Working Papers 2016:34, Lund University, Department of Economics.
    17. Oerlemans, Leon A.G. & Chan, Kai-Ying & Volschenk, Jako, 2016. "Willingness to pay for green electricity: A review of the contingent valuation literature and its sources of error," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 875-885.
    18. Thijs Dekker & Roy Brouwer & Marjan Hofkes & Klaus Moeltner, 2011. "The Effect of Risk Context on the Value of a Statistical Life: a Bayesian Meta-model," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 49(4), pages 597-624, August.
    19. Minhaj Mahmud, 2009. "On the contingent valuation of mortality risk reduction in developing countries," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(2), pages 171-181.
    20. Kim, GwanSeon & Petrolia, Daniel R. & Interis, Matthew G., 2012. "A Method for Improving Welfare Estimates from Multiple-Referendum Surveys," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 37(2), August.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Cognitive Ability; Contingent Valuation; Mortality Risk; Near-proportionality; Scale Bias;

    JEL classification:

    • D80 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - General
    • I10 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - General
    • Q51 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Valuation of Environmental Effects

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