IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/hhs/iuiwop/1019.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

An International Cohort Comparison of Size Effects on Job Growth

Author

Listed:
  • Anyadike-Danes, Michael

    (Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre, UK)

  • Bjuggren, Carl Magnus

    (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))

  • Gottschalk, Sandra

    (ZEW, Germany)

  • Hölzl, Werner

    (WIFO, Austria)

  • Johansson, Dan

    (HUI Research)

  • Maliranta, Mika

    (ETLA)

  • Myrann, Anja

    (Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research, Norway)

Abstract

The contribution of different-sized businesses to job creation continues to attract policymakers’ attention, however, it has recently been recognized that conclusions about size were confounded with the effect of age. We probe the role of size, controlling for age, by comparing the cohorts of firms born in 1998 over their first decade of life, using variation across half a dozen northern European countries Austria, Finland, Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the UK to pin down size effects. We find that a very small proportion of the smallest firms play a crucial role in accounting for cross-country differences in job growth. A closer analysis reveals that the initial size distribution and survival rates do not seem to explain job growth differences between countries, rather it is a small number of rapidly growing firms that are driving this result.

Suggested Citation

  • Anyadike-Danes, Michael & Bjuggren, Carl Magnus & Gottschalk, Sandra & Hölzl, Werner & Johansson, Dan & Maliranta, Mika & Myrann, Anja, 2014. "An International Cohort Comparison of Size Effects on Job Growth," Working Paper Series 1019, Research Institute of Industrial Economics, revised 30 Nov 2014.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:iuiwop:1019
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.ifn.se/wfiles/wp/wp1019.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Erik Hurst & Benjamin Wild Pugsley, 2011. "What Do Small Businesses Do?," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 42(2 (Fall)), pages 73-142.
    2. Paul Schreyer, 2000. "High-Growth Firms and Employment," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 2000/3, OECD Publishing.
    3. Eric Bartelsman & Stefano Scarpetta & Fabiano Schivardi, 2003. "Comparative Analysis of Firm Demographics and Survival: Micro-Level Evidence for the OECD Countries," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 348, OECD Publishing.
    4. Haltiwanger, John & Scarpetta, Stefano & Schweiger, Helena, 2006. "Assessing job flows across countries : the role of industry, firm size, and regulations," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4070, The World Bank.
    5. Martina Lawless, 2014. "Age or size? Contributions to job creation," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(4), pages 815-830, April.
    6. Eric Bartelsman & John Haltiwanger & Stefano Scarpetta, 2009. "Measuring and Analyzing Cross-country Differences in Firm Dynamics," NBER Chapters, in: Producer Dynamics: New Evidence from Micro Data, pages 15-76, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Criscuolo, Chiara & Gal, Peter N. & Menon, Carlo, 2014. "The dynamics of employment growth: new evidence from 18 countries," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 60286, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    8. Richard Ericson & Ariel Pakes, 1995. "Markov-Perfect Industry Dynamics: A Framework for Empirical Work," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 62(1), pages 53-82.
    9. Luís M B Cabral & José Mata, 2003. "On the Evolution of the Firm Size Distribution: Facts and Theory," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(4), pages 1075-1090, September.
    10. Eric J. Bartelsman & John Haltiwanger & Stefano Scarpetta, 2004. "Microeconomic Evidence of Creative Destruction in Industrial and Developing Countries," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 04-114/3, Tinbergen Institute.
    11. Leo J.G. van Wissen, 2002. "Demography of the Firm: A Useful Metaphor?," European Journal of Population, Springer;European Association for Population Studies, vol. 18(3), pages 263-279, September.
    12. Magnus Henrekson & Dan Johansson, 2010. "Gazelles as job creators: a survey and interpretation of the evidence," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 35(2), pages 227-244, September.
    13. Scott Shane, 2009. "Why encouraging more people to become entrepreneurs is bad public policy," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(2), pages 141-149, August.
    14. Ryan Decker & John Haltiwanger & Ron Jarmin & Javier Miranda, 2014. "The Role of Entrepreneurship in US Job Creation and Economic Dynamism," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 28(3), pages 3-24, Summer.
    15. John Haltiwanger & Ron S. Jarmin & Javier Miranda, 2010. "Who Creates Jobs? Small vs. Large vs. Young," Working Papers 10-17, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
    16. John Haltiwanger, 2012. "Job Creation and Firm Dynamics in the United States," Innovation Policy and the Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 12(1), pages 17-38.
    17. Gerrit Wit & Jan Kok, 2014. "Do small businesses create more jobs? New evidence for Europe," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(2), pages 283-295, February.
    18. David Neumark & Brandon Wall & Junfu Zhang, 2011. "Do Small Businesses Create More Jobs? New Evidence for the United States from the National Establishment Time Series," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 93(1), pages 16-29, August.
    19. Steven Vale, 2006. "The International comparability of Business Start-up Rates Final Report," OECD Statistics Working Papers 2006/4, OECD Publishing.
    20. Evans, David S, 1987. "Tests of Alternative Theories of Firm Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(4), pages 657-674, August.
    21. Paul Nightingale & Alex Coad, 2014. "Muppets and gazelles: political and methodological biases in entrepreneurship research," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(1), pages 113-143, February.
    22. Meghana Ayyagari & Asli Demirguc-Kunt & Vojislav Maksimovic, 2014. "Who creates jobs in developing countries?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 43(1), pages 75-99, June.
    23. Jovanovic, Boyan, 1982. "Selection and the Evolution of Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(3), pages 649-670, May.
    24. Bassanini, Andrea & Marianna, Pascal, 2009. "Looking Inside the Perpetual-Motion Machine: Job and Worker Flows in OECD Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 4452, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    25. Timothy Dunne & Mark J. Roberts & Larry Samuelson, 1989. "The Growth and Failure of U. S. Manufacturing Plants," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 104(4), pages 671-698.
    26. John Haltiwanger & Ron S. Jarmin & Javier Miranda, 2013. "Who Creates Jobs? Small versus Large versus Young," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 95(2), pages 347-361, May.
    27. Hopenhayn, Hugo A, 1992. "Entry, Exit, and Firm Dynamics in Long Run Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(5), pages 1127-1150, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Michael Anyadike-Danes & Mark Hart, 2018. "All grown up? The fate after 15 years of a quarter of a million UK firms born in 1998," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 45-76, January.
    2. Pietro Santoleri, 2020. "Innovation and job creation in (high-growth) new firms [An international cohort comparison of size effects on job growth]," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 29(3), pages 731-756.
    3. Giovanni Dosi & Emanuele Pugliese & Pietro Santoleri, 2017. "Growth and survival of the `fitter'? Evidence from US new-born firms," LEM Papers Series 2017/06, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
    4. Andrén, Daniela & Mudenda, Lackson Daniel & Pettersson, Nicklas, 2019. "Which firms employ older workers?," Working Papers 2018:14, Örebro University, School of Business.
    5. Mika Maliranta & Satu Nurmi, 2019. "Business owners, employees, and firm performance," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 52(1), pages 111-129, January.
    6. Fornaro, Paolo & Luomaranta, Henri, 2015. "Small Versus Large Firms Employment Patterns in Finland: a Comparison," MPRA Paper 66979, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Fornaro, Paolo & Luomaranta, Henri, 2016. "Job Creation and the Role of Dependencies," MPRA Paper 71586, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Alex Coad & Julian S. Frankish & Richard G. Roberts & David J. Storey, 2016. "Predicting new venture survival and growth: Does the fog lift?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 47(1), pages 217-241, June.
    9. Heyman, Fredrik & Norbäck, Pehr-Johan & Persson, Lars, 2018. "Who creates jobs and who creates productivity? Small versus large versus young versus old," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 164(C), pages 50-57.
    10. Sofia Fonseca & Maria João Guedes & Vítor Conceição Gonçalves, 2022. "Profitability and size of newly established firms," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 18(2), pages 957-974, June.
    11. Heyman, Fredrik & Norbäck, Pehr-Johan & Persson, Lars & Andersson, Fredrik, 2019. "Has the Swedish business sector become more entrepreneurial than the US business sector?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(7), pages 1809-1822.
    12. Christine de la Maisonneuve, 2016. "How to boost export performance in Greece," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 1299, OECD Publishing.
    13. Díaz-Chao, Ángel & Ficapal-Cusí, Pilar & Torrent-Sellens, Joan, 2017. "Did small and medium enterprises maintain better jobs during the early years of the recession? Job quality multidimensional evidence from Spain," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 396-413.
    14. Mina, Andrea & Santoleri, Pietro, 2021. "The effect of the Great Recession on the employment growth of young vs. small firms in the Eurozone," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 184-194.
    15. Flavio Calvino & Chiara Criscuolo & Carlo Menon, 2018. "A cross-country analysis of start-up employment dynamics," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 27(4), pages 677-698.
    16. Habermann, Harald, 2017. "Business takeovers and firm growth: Empirical evidence from a German panel," Working Papers 01/17, Institut für Mittelstandsforschung (IfM) Bonn.
    17. Karlsson, Johan, 2018. "Does regional context matter for family firm employment growth?," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 293-310.
    18. Gaga Loghin & Gabor Andrei & Naaji Antonela & Popescu Marius Constantin, 2016. "Analysis of the Evolution of SMEs in Western Romania Between 2011–2014, Using the Mathematical Modelling," Studia Universitatis „Vasile Goldis” Arad – Economics Series, Sciendo, vol. 26(4), pages 94-107, November.
    19. Andersson, Fredrik W. & Johansson, Dan & Karlsson, Johan & Lodefalk, Magnus & Poldahl, Andreas, 2017. "The Characteristics and Performance of Family Firms: Exploiting information on ownership, governance and kinship using total population data," Working Papers 2017:1, Örebro University, School of Business.
    20. Johan Karlsson, 2021. "Firm size and growth barriers: a data-driven approach," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 57(3), pages 1319-1338, October.
    21. Andrew Burke & Marc Cowling, 2020. "The relationship between freelance workforce intensity, business performance and job creation," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 55(2), pages 399-413, August.
    22. Marc Cowling & Weixi Liu & Ning Zhang, 2018. "Did firm age, experience, and access to finance count? SME performance after the global financial crisis," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 77-100, January.
    23. Alex Coad & Martin Andersson & Magnus Henrekson & Sarah Jack & Mikael Stenkula & Karin Thorburn & Karl Wennberg & Ivo Zander, 2022. "John Haltiwanger: recipient of the 2020 Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 58(1), pages 15-25, January.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Michael Anyadike-Danes & Carl-Magnus Bjuggren & Sandra Gottschalk & Werner Hölzl & Dan Johansson & Mika Maliranta & Anja Myrann, 2013. "Accounting for Job Growth: Disentangling Size and Age Effects in an International Cohort Comparison," Research Papers 0002, Enterprise Research Centre.
    2. Geurts, Karen & Van Biesebroeck, Johannes, 2016. "Firm creation and post-entry dynamics of de novo entrants," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 59-104.
    3. Cristina Fernández & Roberta García & Paloma Lopez-Garcia & Benedicta Marzinotto & Roberta Serafini & Juuso Vanhala & Ladislav Wintr, 2017. "Firm growth in Europe: An overview based on the COMPNET labour module," BCL working papers 107, Central Bank of Luxembourg.
    4. Nicolas Berman & Vincent Rebeyrol & Vincent Vicard, 2019. "Demand Learning and Firm Dynamics: Evidence from Exporters," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 101(1), pages 91-106, March.
    5. Bergner, Sören Martin & Bräutigam, Rainer & Evers, Maria Theresia & Spengel, Christoph, 2017. "The use of SME tax incentives in the European Union," ZEW Discussion Papers 17-006, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    6. Schneck, Stefan, 2018. "Times are a changin'? The emergence of new firms and rank persistence," Working Papers 01/18, Institut für Mittelstandsforschung (IfM) Bonn.
    7. J. David Brown & John S. Earle & Mee Jung Kim & Kyung Min Lee, 2017. "High-Growth Entrepreneurship," Working Papers 17-53, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
    8. Stefan Schneck, 2020. "Times are a Changin’? The Emergence of New Firms and Rank Reshuffling," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 20(1), pages 1-33, March.
    9. Pietro Santoleri, 2020. "Innovation and job creation in (high-growth) new firms [An international cohort comparison of size effects on job growth]," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 29(3), pages 731-756.
    10. Oznur Ozdamar & Eleftherios Giovanis & Sahizer Samuk, 2020. "State business relations and the dynamics of job flows in Egypt and Turkey," Eurasian Business Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 10(4), pages 519-558, December.
    11. Silviano Esteve-Pérez & Fabio Pieri & Diego Rodriguez, 2022. "One swallow does not make a summer: episodes and persistence in high growth," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 58(3), pages 1517-1544, March.
    12. Huber, Peter & Oberhofer, Harald & Pfaffermayr, Michael, 2017. "Who creates jobs? Econometric modeling and evidence for Austrian firm level data," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 57-71.
    13. Giorgio Barba Navaretti & Davide Castellani & Fabio Pieri, 2014. "Age and firm growth: evidence from three European countries," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 43(4), pages 823-837, December.
    14. Decker, Ryan A. & Haltiwanger, John & Jarmin, Ron S. & Miranda, Javier, 2016. "Where has all the skewness gone? The decline in high-growth (young) firms in the U.S," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 4-23.
    15. Daniele Moschella & Federico Tamagni & Xiaodan Yu, 2019. "Persistent high-growth firms in China’s manufacturing," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 52(3), pages 573-594, March.
    16. Vincent Sterk & Petr Sedláček & Benjamin Pugsley, 2021. "The Nature of Firm Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 111(2), pages 547-579, February.
    17. Marco Vivarelli, 2013. "Is entrepreneurship necessarily good? Microeconomic evidence from developed and developing countries," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 22(6), pages 1453-1495, December.
    18. Meri Davlasheridze & Pinar C. Geylani, 2017. "Small Business vulnerability to floods and the effects of disaster loans," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 49(4), pages 865-888, December.
    19. Alex Coad, 2018. "Firm age: a survey," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 13-43, January.
    20. Poschke, Markus, 2013. "Who becomes an entrepreneur? Labor market prospects and occupational choice," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 693-710.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Birth cohort; Firm age; Firm size; Firm survival; Firm growth;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • L25 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Performance
    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hhs:iuiwop:1019. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/iuiiise.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Elisabeth Gustafsson (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/iuiiise.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.