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Les Banques Étrangères En Asie Du Sud-Est : Le Rôle Des Local Claims

  • Delphine Lahet

    ()

    (Larefi - Laboratoire d'analyse et de recherche en économie et finance internationales - Université Montesquieu - Bordeaux 4)

L'objectif de l'article est d'étudier la présence des banques étrangères et leur impact sur le développement économique et financier de cinq pays asiatiques. Pour cela, nous appréhendons cette présence par les local claims, c'est-à-dire, les créances locales, notamment les activités de crédit auprès des agents locaux, de leurs filiales ou succursales implantées dans ces pays émergents, de 1994 à nos jours. Nous établissons, tout d'abord, la stratégie développée par les banques étrangères (implantations ou activités transfrontières (cross-border)) et l'identité des créanciers majoritaires : américains et britanniques et non plus japonais. Puis, nous montrons que les local claims résistent plutôt aux chocs économiques et financiers et que leur développement est bénéfique aux pays émergents, notamment les créances en monnaie locale : développement économique et financier, stabilité des financements extérieurs, assainissement du système bancaire local (rentabilité, risque, liquidité), notamment en Malaisie. En ces points, nous rejoignons les résultats que la littérature a obtenus à ce sujet sur les PECO et les pays d'Amérique latine. Néanmoins, la crise financière actuelle rappelle qu'une maison-mère en difficulté peut fragiliser sa filiale et perturber le fonctionnement du système bancaire local, donc le développement économique du pays émergent.

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Date of creation: 02 May 2009
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Handle: RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-00616577
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