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Reintegration upon return: insights from Ecuadorian returnees from Spain


  • Marion Mercier

    () (DIAL - Développement, institutions et analyses de long terme, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD))

  • Anda David

    (LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, LEDA-DIAL - Développement, Institutions et Modialisation - LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

  • Ramón Mahia

    (UAM - Universidad Autonoma de Madrid)

  • Rafael de Arce

    (UAM - Universidad Autonoma de Madrid)


Using the ECM2 survey data on Ecuadorian migrants returning from Spain, we investigate the determinants of reintegration upon return. We study how the migration experience, but also the before- and after-migration characteristics, correlate with migrants' outcomes upon return. We adopt a broad conception of reintegration, considering jointly labor market-related outcomes that proxy for structural reintegration and subjective indicators that provide insights on sociocultural reintegration. The determinants of these two types of outcomes appear to be different: reintegration indeed encompasses multiple dimensions which cannot be captured by a single indicator. Our results suggest that return assistance programs' efficiency in helping reintegration could be improved by (i) targeting, ex-ante, returnees who plan to launch their own business, and, ex-post, the most vulnerable workers (women, older returnees, unemployed), and (ii) facilitating the labor market integration of foreign-educated returnees. They also call for further research to better understand the consequences of these programs.

Suggested Citation

  • Marion Mercier & Anda David & Ramón Mahia & Rafael de Arce, 2016. "Reintegration upon return: insights from Ecuadorian returnees from Spain," Post-Print hal-01726275, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:hal-01726275
    DOI: 10.1111/imig.12288
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server:

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Anda David & Mohamed Ali Marouani, 2017. "Migration patterns and labor market outcomes in Tunisia," Working Papers DT/2017/03, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
    2. Isabelle Nocus & Philipe Guimard and Agnès Florin, 2017. "Evaluation of the « Ecole et langues nationales en Afrique » program: Methodological Aspects and Interim Assessment," Working Paper c18af23f-0bf0-4bc8-9ea5-f, Agence française de développement.
    3. Rohen D'AIGLEPIERRE & Arthur Bauer, 2017. "The choice of arabo-islamic education in sub-Saharan Africa: findings from a comparative study," Working Paper 1b845da2-5276-4b82-88ef-c, Agence française de développement.
    4. Rohen d’Aiglepierre & Arthur Bauer, 2017. "Teacher training based on the results of research on their actual practices in the context of Sub-Saharan Africa: The OPERA project in Burkina Faso, issues and challenges," Working Paper cacf7616-2ec5-4da2-93df-8, Agence française de développement.

    More about this item


    Migration de retour; Satisfaction; Equateur; Espagne; Returnees; Integration; Ecuador; Spain;

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • J28 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Safety; Job Satisfaction; Related Public Policy


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