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Reintegration upon return: insights from Ecuadorian returnees from Spain

Author

Listed:
  • Marion Mercier

    () (IRES – Université Catholique de Louvain; DIAL – IRD; IZA)

  • Anda David

    () (Agence Française de Développement; DIAL – IRD)

  • Ramón Mahia

    () (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid)

  • Rafael De Arce

    () (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid)

Abstract

Using the ECM2 survey data on Ecuadorian migrants returning from Spain, we investigate the determinants of reintegration upon return. We study how the migration experience, but also the before- and after-migration characteristics, correlate with migrants’ outcomes upon return. We adopt a broad conception of reintegration, considering jointly labor market-related outcomes that proxy for structural reintegration and subjective indicators that provide insights on sociocultural reintegration. The determinants of these two types of outcomes appear to be different: reintegration indeed encompasses multiple dimensions which cannot be captured by a single indicator. Our results suggest that return assistance programs’ efficiency in helping reintegration could be improved by (i) targeting, ex-ante, returnees who plan to launch their own business, and, ex-post, the most vulnerable workers (women, older returnees, unemployed), and (ii) facilitating the labor market integration of foreign-educated returnees. They also call for further research to better understand the consequences of these programs. _________________________________ En utilisant les données de l'enquête ECM2 sur les migrants équatoriens de retour d'Espagne, nous étudions les déterminants de la réintégration à leur retour. Nous étudions comment l'expérience de la migration, mais aussi les caractéristiques avant et après la migration, sont corrélés avec les résultats des migrants en termes d’insertion à leur retour. Nous adoptons une conception large de la réintégration, qui englobe à la fois des indicateurs liés au marché du travail en tant que proxy pour la réintégration structurelle et des indicateurs subjectifs qui donnent un aperçu sur la réinsertion socio-culturelle. Les déterminants de ces deux types de résultats semblent être différents: la réintégration englobe en effet de multiples dimensions qui ne peuvent pas être capturées par un seul indicateur. Nos résultats suggèrent que l'efficacité des programmes d'aide au retour visant une meilleure intégration pourrait être améliorée par (i) le ciblage, ex-ante, des migrants de retour qui ont l'intention de lancer leur propre entreprise, et, a posteriori, les travailleurs les plus vulnérables (femmes, rapatriés âgés, chômeurs), et (ii) la facilitation de l'intégration sur marché du travail des migrants de retour ayant acquis l’éducation à l'étranger. Ces résultats soulignent également le besoin pour des recherches approfondies afin de mieux comprendre les conséquences de ces programmes.

Suggested Citation

  • Marion Mercier & Anda David & Ramón Mahia & Rafael De Arce, 2016. "Reintegration upon return: insights from Ecuadorian returnees from Spain," Working Papers DT/2016/04, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
  • Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt201604
    as

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    File URL: http://www.dial.ird.fr/media/ird-sites-d-unites-de-recherche/dial/documents/publications/doc_travail/2016/2016-04
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ilahi, Nadeem, 1999. "Return Migration and Occupational Change," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 3(2), pages 170-186, June.
    2. Christian Dustmann & Yoram Weiss, 2007. "Return Migration: Theory and Empirical Evidence," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 0702, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
    3. Batista, Catia & McIndoe Calder, Tara & Vicente, Pedro C., 2014. "Return Migration, Self-Selection and Entrepreneurship in Mozambique," IZA Discussion Papers 8195, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
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    8. Dustmann, Christian, 2003. "Return migration, wage differentials, and the optimal migration duration," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 353-369, April.
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    13. Mezger Kveder, Cora Leonie & Flahaux, Marie-Laurence, 2013. "Returning to Dakar: A Mixed Methods Analysis of the Role of Migration Experience for Occupational Status," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 223-238.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Returnees; Integration; Satisfaction; Ecuador; Spain;

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • J28 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Safety; Job Satisfaction; Related Public Policy

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