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Mondialisation économique et financière :de quelques poncifs, idées fausses et vérités

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  • Jacques Le Cacheux

    () (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)

Abstract

La mondialisation économique et financière suscite des débats et controverses dont les termes sont, le plus souvent, emprunts de confusion. Bénéfique pour certains, maléfique pour d'autres, la mondialisation est tantôt parée de toutes les vertus, tantôt affublée de tous les vices. Cet article propose une grille de lecture économique des différentes facettes de ce phénomène contemporain. En premier lieu, il importe de le replacer dans une perspective historique longue, pour faire ressortir les similitudes entre la période actuelle et les précédents épisodes de mondialisation. Nous passons ensuite en revue les facteurs qui, selon nous, constituent les principaux moteurs de la mondialisation : avantages comparatifs et spécialisation, économies d'échelle et de gamme, goût des consommateurs riches pour la variété, abaissement des coûts de transport et de communication, et libéralisation et ouverture des marchés. La mondialisation qui résulte de la combinaison de ces facteurs procure des gains économiques indéniables, gains mutuels de l'échange, gains de la spécialisation et diffusion internationale des technologies, qui sont susceptibles d'engendrer, à très long terme, une tendance au rattrapage des pays les plus riches par les plus pauvres, donc une certaine convergence économique mondiale. Toutefois, la mondialisation économique et financière comporte aussi des coûts et des inconvénients, notamment en raison des restructurations qu'elle impose, de l'instabilité macroéconomique et financière qu'elle favorise en l'absence de régulations adéquates, et des inégalités qu'elle creuse entre gagnants et perdants, au sein des économies nationales et, dans certaines conditions, entre économies nationales. La dernière partie de l'article aborde la question de la gouvernance de l'économie mondialisée, en évoquant successivement les modalités de la régulation mondiale par les institutions internationales telles que le FMI et l'OMC, et les potentialités offertes par les processus d'intégration régionale, et notamment l'expérience européenne d'union économique et monétaire.

Suggested Citation

  • Jacques Le Cacheux, 2002. "Mondialisation économique et financière :de quelques poncifs, idées fausses et vérités," Post-Print hal-01017813, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:hal-01017813
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://hal-sciencespo.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01017813
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    JEL classification:

    • F02 - International Economics - - General - - - International Economic Order and Integration

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