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Wording and gender effects in a Game of Chicken. An explorative experimental study

  • Marie-Laure Cabon-Dhersin


    (CREAM - CREAM - Centre de Recherche en Economie Appliquée à la Mondialisation - Université de Rouen)

  • Nathalie Etchart-Vincent


    (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

In this short paper, we run an experiment to investigate the influence of a very basic change in the labelling of the strategies on cooperative behaviour in a standard Game of Chicken. Our between-subject experimental design involves two treatments. The only difference between them is that we introduce either a socially-oriented wording ('I cooperate'/'I do not cooperate') or colours (Red/Blue) to designate strategies. Our study replicates the findings obtained in a previous experimental study based on a Game of Chicken framework with incomplete information and a within-subject design: the level of cooperation appears to be higher in the socially-oriented context, due to a change in women behaviour only.

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Paper provided by HAL in its series Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) with number hal-00796708.

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Date of creation: 04 Mar 2013
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Handle: RePEc:hal:cesptp:hal-00796708
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  1. Marie-Laure Cabon-Dhersin & Nathalie Etchart-Vincent, 2010. "Cooperation, the power of a single word. Some experimental evidence on wording and gender effects in a Game of Chicken," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00542492, HAL.
  2. Brian Skyrms & Kevin J.S. Zollman, 2010. "Evolutionary considerations in the framing of social norms," Politics, Philosophy & Economics, The Murphy Institute of Political Economy, vol. 9(3), pages 265-273, August.
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  6. Neugebauer, Tibor & Poulsen, Anders & Schramm, Arthur, 2002. "Fairness and Reciprocity in the Hawk-Dove game," Working Papers 02-12, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Department of Economics.
  7. Butler, David J. & Burbank, Victoria K. & Chisholm, James S., 2011. "The frames behind the games: Player's perceptions of prisoners dilemma, chicken, dictator, and ultimatum games," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 103-114, April.
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  10. Andreoni, James & Vesterlund, Lise, 2001. "Which is the Fair Sex? Gender Differences in Altruism," Staff General Research Papers Archive 1951, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  11. DeCanio, Stephen J. & Fremstad, Anders, 2013. "Game theory and climate diplomacy," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 177-187.
  12. Daniel John Zizzo & Jonathan H.W. Tan, 2003. "Perceived Harmony, Similarity and Cooperation in 2 x 2 Games: An Experimental Study," Economics Series Working Papers 176, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
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  14. Boffa, Mauro & Olarreaga, Marcelo, 2012. "Protectionism during the crisis: Tit-for-tat or chicken-games?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 117(3), pages 746-749.
  15. Koji Kotani & Shunsuke Managi & Kenta Tanaka, 2008. "Further investigations of framing effects on cooperative choices in a provision point mechanism," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 3(51), pages 1-9.
  16. Rege, Mari & Telle, Kjetil, 2004. "The impact of social approval and framing on cooperation in public good situations," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(7-8), pages 1625-1644, July.
  17. Eckel, Catherine C & Grossman, Philip J, 1998. "Are Women Less Selfish Than Men? Evidence from Dictator Experiments," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(448), pages 726-35, May.
  18. Ellingsen, Tore & Johannesson, Magnus & Mollerstrom, Johanna & Munkhammar, Sara, 2012. "Social framing effects: Preferences or beliefs?," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 117-130.
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