The effects of different types of taxes on soft-drink consumption
Monthly data from GfK Consumerscan Scandinavia for the years 2006 – 2009 are used to estimate the effects of different tax scenarios on the consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSB’s). Most studies fail to consider demand interrelationships between different types of soft-drinks when the effects of taxation are evaluated. To add to the literature in this aspect we estimated a two-step censored dynamic almost ideal demand system where we include the possibilities that consumers have to substitute between diet and regular soft-drinks, between discount and non-discount (normal) brands as well as between different container sizes. Especially the large sizes and discount brands provide considerable value for money to the consumer. Three different type of taxes is considered; a tax based on the content of added sugar in various SSB’s, a flat tax on soft-drinks alone and a size differentiated tax on soft-drinks that remove the value for money obtained by purchasing large container sizes. The scenarios are scaled equally in terms of obtained public revenue. Largest effect in terms of reduced intake of calories and sugar are obtained by applying the tax on sugar in all beverages, even though detrimental health effects in terms of increased intake of diet soft-drinks has to be considered. A flat tax on soft-drinks decreases the intake of sugar, but implies a small increase in total calorie intake due to substitution with other SSB’s. A tax aimed at removing the value added from purchasing large container sizes increase sugar and total calorie intake due to substitution towards discount brands. Hence the results show the importance of considering substitution between different sizes, brands and discount versus normal brands when simulating the effects of soft-drinks taxation and point toward a tax on the sugar content of SSB’s as the most effective in the regulation of obesity.
|Date of creation:||Jul 2012|
|Date of revision:||Nov 2012|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.ifro.ku.dk/english/|
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Moschini, GianCarlo, 1995. "Units of Measurement and the 'Stone Index' In Demand System Estimation," Staff General Research Papers 5058, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- John Cawley & Markus M. Grabka & Dean R. Lillard, 2005.
"A Comparison of the Relationship between Obesity and Earnings in the U.S. and Germany,"
Schmollers Jahrbuch : Journal of Applied Social Science Studies / Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften,
Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 125(1), pages 119-129.
- Cawley, John H. & Grabka, Markus M. & Lillard, Dean R., 2005. "A Comparison of the Relationship between Obesity and Earnings in the U.S. and Germany," EconStor Open Access Articles, ZBW - German National Library of Economics, pages 119-129.
- Pashardes, Panos, 1993. "Bias in Estimating the Almost Ideal Demand System with the Stone Index Approximation," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 103(419), pages 908-15, July.
- Astrid Jonas & Jutta Roosen, 2008. "Demand for milk labels in Germany: organic milk, conventional brands, and retail labels," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(2), pages 192-206.
- Kuo Huang, 1999. "Effects of food prices and consumer income on nutrient availability," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(3), pages 367-380.
- Gould, Brian W., 1996. "Factors Affecting U.S. Demand For Reduced-Fat Fluid Milk," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 21(01), July.
- David L. Edgerton, 1997. "Weak Separability and the Estimation of Elasticities in Multistage Demand Systems," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 79(1), pages 62-79.
- Kuchler, Fred & Tegene, Abebayehu & Harris, James Michael, 2004. "Taxing Snack Foods: What to Expect for Diet and Tax Revenues," Agricultural Information Bulletins 33607, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
- Gould, Brian W. & Dong, Diansheng, 2000. "The Decision Of When To Buy A Frequently Purchased Good: A Multi-Period Probit Model," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 25(02), December.
- Chalfant, James A, 1987. "A Globally Flexible, Almost Ideal Demand System," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 5(2), pages 233-42, April.
- Smed, Sinne & Jensen, Jorgen D. & Denver, Sigrid, 2007. "Socio-economic characteristics and the effect of taxation as a health policy instrument," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(5-6), pages 624-639.
- Amemiya, Takeshi, 1974. "Multivariate Regression and Simultaneous Equation Models when the Dependent Variables Are Truncated Normal," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 42(6), pages 999-1012, November.
- J. Scott Shonkwiler & Steven T. Yen, 1999. "Two-Step Estimation of a Censored System of Equations," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 81(4), pages 972-982.
- Geir W�hler Gustavsen & Kyrre Rickertsen, 2009. "The effects of taxes on purchases of sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks: a quantile regression approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(6), pages 707-716.
- Chen Zhen & Michael K. Wohlgenant & Shawn Karns & Phillip Kaufman, 2010. "Habit Formation and Demand for Sugar-Sweetened Beverages," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 93(1), pages 175-193.
- Miljkovic, Dragan & Nganje, William & de Chastenet, Helene, 2008. "Economic factors affecting the increase in obesity in the United States: Differential response to price," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 48-60, February.
- Rickertsen, Kyrre, 1998. "The demand for food and beverages in Norway," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 18(1), pages 89-100, January.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:foi:wpaper:2012_9. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Geir Tveit)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.