Measurement of retail output and the retail revolution
The computerization of retailing has made price dispersion a norm in the United States, so that any given list price or transactions price is an increasingly imperfect measure of a product's resource cost. As a consequence, measuring the real output of retailers has become increasingly difficult. Food retailing is used as a case study to examine data problems in retail productivity measurement. Crude direct measures of grocery store output suggest that the CPI for food-at-home may have been overstated by 1.4 percentage points annually from 1978 to 1996.
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- Bliss, Christopher, 1988. "A Theory of Retail Pricing," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(4), pages 375-391, June.
- Ellen Dulberger, 1993. "Sources of Price Decline in Computer Processors : Selected Electronic Components," NBER Chapters,in: Price Measurements and Their Uses, pages 103-124 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.