IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/fip/fednsr/700.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Tuition, jobs, or housing: what's keeping millennials at home?

Author

Abstract

This paper documents marked changes in young Americans? residence choices over the past fifteen years, with recent cohorts delaying homeownership and lingering much longer in parents? households. To understand the sources and implications of this decline in independence, we estimate the contributions of local economic circumstances to the decision to live with parents or independently. Transition models, local aggregates, and state-cohort tuition patterns are used to address the likely presence of individual- and neighborhood-level unobserved heterogeneity. Employment and housing market estimates imply countervailing influences of local economic growth on co-residence. Increasing college costs, however, unambiguously favor co-residence with parents.

Suggested Citation

  • Zachary Bleemer & Meta Brown & Donghoon Lee & Wilbert Van der Klaauw, 2014. "Tuition, jobs, or housing: what's keeping millennials at home?," Staff Reports 700, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fednsr:700
    Note: Previous title: "Debt, Jobs, or Housing: What’s Keeping Millennials at Home?"
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.newyorkfed.org/research/staff_reports/sr700.html
    File Function: Summary
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://www.newyorkfed.org/medialibrary/media/research/staff_reports/sr700.pdf?la=en
    File Function: Full text
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Sascha Becker & Samuel Bentolila & Ana Fernandes & Andrea Ichino, 2010. "Youth emancipation and perceived job insecurity of parents and children," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 23(3), pages 1047-1071, June.
    2. Sebastian Dyrda & Greg Kaplan & José-Víctor Ríos-Rull, 2012. "Business Cycles and Household Formation: The Micro vs the Macro Labor Elasticity," NBER Working Papers 17880, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Dettling, Lisa J. & Hsu, Joanne W., 2018. "Returning to the nest: Debt and parental co-residence among young adults," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 225-236.
    4. Meta Brown & John Karl Scholz & Ananth Seshadri, 2012. "A New Test of Borrowing Constraints for Education," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 79(2), pages 511-538.
    5. Meta Brown & Andrew F. Haughwout & Donghoon Lee & Wilbert Van der Klaauw, 2011. "Do we know what we owe? A comparison of borrower- and lender-reported consumer debt," Staff Reports 523, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    6. Ermisch, John, 1999. "Prices, Parents, and Young People's Household Formation," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 47-71, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Frederick T. Furlong, 2016. "Household formation among young adults," FRBSF Economic Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
    2. Lance Lochner & Alexander Monge-Naranjo, 2014. "Student Loans and Repayment: Theory, Evidence and Policy," Working Papers 2014-40, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    3. Zachary Bleemer & Wilbert Van der Klaauw, 2017. "Disaster (over-)insurance: the long-term financial and socioeconomic consequences of Hurricane Katrina," Staff Reports 807, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    4. Cooper, Daniel & Luengo-Prado, María José, 2018. "Household formation over time: Evidence from two cohorts of young adults," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 106-123.
    5. Sarena F. Goodman & Adam Isen & Constantine Yannelis, 2018. "A Day Late and a Dollar Short : Liquidity and Household Formation among Student Borrowers," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2018-025, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    6. Adam Looney & Constantine Yannelis, 2015. "A Crisis in Student Loans? How Changes in the Characteristics of Borrowers and in the Institutions They Attended Contributed to Rising Loan Defaults," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 46(2 (Fall)), pages 1-89.
    7. Hippolyte d'Albis & Karina Doorley & Elena Stancanelli, 2021. "Older mothers' employment and marriage stability when the nest is empty," Working Papers halshs-03203063, HAL.
    8. Jordan Rappaport, 2015. "Millennials, baby boomers, and rebounding multifamily home construction," Macro Bulletin, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, pages 1-2, June.
    9. Cox, James C. & Kreisman, Daniel & Dynarski, Susan, 2020. "Designed to fail: Effects of the default option and information complexity on student loan repayment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 192(C).
    10. Cristina Barceló & Ernesto Villanueva, 2018. "The risk of job loss, household formation and housing demand: evidence from differences in severance payments," Working Papers 1849, Banco de España.
    11. Pinka Chatterji & Xiangshi Liu & Baris K. Yoruk, 2017. "Health Insurance and the Boomerang Generation: Did the 2010 ACA Dependent Care Provision affect Geographic Mobility and Living Arrangements among Young Adults?," NBER Working Papers 23700, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Bleemer, Zachary & van der Klaauw, Wilbert, 2019. "Long-run net distributionary effects of federal disaster insurance: The case of Hurricane Katrina," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 70-88.
    13. Bleemer, Zachary & Brown, Meta & Lee, Donghoon & Strair, Katherine & van der Klaauw, Wilbert, 2021. "Echoes of rising tuition in students’ borrowing, educational attainment, and homeownership in post-recession America," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 122(C).
    14. Nachatter Singh Garha & Alda Botelho Azevedo, 2021. "Population and Housing (Mis)match in Lisbon, 1981–2018. A Challenge for an Aging Society," Social Sciences, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(3), pages 1-18, March.
    15. Adamopoulou, Effrosyni, 2016. "Living Arrangements of the Youth: Determinants and Gender Differences/Patrones de convivencia de los jóvenes: Determinantes y diferencias por sexos," Estudios de Economia Aplicada, Estudios de Economia Aplicada, vol. 34, pages 35-44, Enero.
    16. Nicholas Fritsch & Rawley Heimer, 2020. "Intergenerational Homeownership and Mortgage Distress," Economic Commentary, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, vol. 2020(12), pages 1-7, June.
    17. John Mondragon & Janice Eberly & Gene Amromin, 2017. "The Housing Crisis and the Rise in Student Loans," 2017 Meeting Papers 369, Society for Economic Dynamics.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Adamopoulou, Effrosyni, 2016. "Living Arrangements of the Youth: Determinants and Gender Differences/Patrones de convivencia de los jóvenes: Determinantes y diferencias por sexos," Estudios de Economia Aplicada, Estudios de Economia Aplicada, vol. 34, pages 35-44, Enero.
    2. Francesca Modena & Concetta Rondinelli, 2011. "Leaving home and housing prices. The experience of Italian youth emancipation," Department of Economics Working Papers 1101, Department of Economics, University of Trento, Italia.
    3. Aparicio Fenoll, Ainoa & Oppedisano, Veruska, 2012. "Fostering the Emancipation of Young People: Evidence from a Spanish Rental Subsidy," IZA Discussion Papers 6651, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    4. Christopoulou, Rebekka & Pantalidou, Maria, 2017. "The parental home as labor market insurance for young Greeks during the crisis," GLO Discussion Paper Series 158, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    5. Gatskova, Kseniia & Kozlov, Vladimir, 2019. "Doubling Up or Moving Out? The Effect of International Labour Migration on Household Size," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 162-179.
    6. Cobb-Clark, Deborah A., 2008. "Leaving Home: What Economics Has to Say about the Living Arrangements of Young Australians," IZA Discussion Papers 3309, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    7. Christopoulou, Rebekka & Pantalidou, Maria, 2018. "Who saved Greek youth? Parental support to young adults during the great recession," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 91954, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    8. Effrosyni Adamopoulou & Ezgi Kaya, 2018. "Young Adults Living with their Parents and the Influence of Peers," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 80(3), pages 689-713, June.
    9. Francisco Maeso & Ildefonso Mendez, 2008. "The Role of Partnership Status and Expectations on the Emancipation Behaviour of Spanish Graduates," Working Papers wp2008_0812, CEMFI.
    10. Luca Stella, 2017. "Living arrangements in Europe: whether and why paternal retirement matters," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 497-525, June.
    11. Juliet Stone & Ann Berrington & Jane Falkingham, 2014. "Gender, Turning Points, and Boomerangs: Returning Home in Young Adulthood in Great Britain," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 51(1), pages 257-276, February.
    12. Olga Cantó & Inmaculada Cebrián & Gloria Moreno, 2019. "Household precariousness and youth living arrangements in Spain: evidence for a complete business cycle," Working Papers 499, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    13. Kseniya Abanokova & Michael Lokshin, 2015. "Changes in household composition as a shock-mitigating strategy," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 23(2), pages 371-388, April.
    14. Bentolila, Samuel & Maeso, Francisco & Mendez, Ildefonso, 2015. "Leaving Home with a Partner," CEPR Discussion Papers 10630, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    15. Viola Angelini & Anne Laferrère, 2013. "Parental altruism and nest leaving in Europe: evidence from a retrospective survey," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 11(3), pages 393-420, September.
    16. Cooper, Daniel & Luengo-Prado, María José, 2018. "Household formation over time: Evidence from two cohorts of young adults," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 106-123.
    17. Becker, Sascha O. & Bentolila, Samuel & Fernandes, Ana & Ichino, Andrea, 2005. "Job Insecurity and Youth Emancipation: A Theoretical Approach," CEPR Discussion Papers 5339, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    18. Maria Concetta Chiuri & Daniela Del Boca, 2008. "Household Membership Decisions of Adult Children: Does Gender and Institutions Matter?," Carlo Alberto Notebooks 75, Collegio Carlo Alberto.
    19. Chiuri, Maria Concetta & Del Boca, Daniela, 2008. "Household Membership Decisions of Adult Children," IZA Discussion Papers 3546, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    20. Rogers, William H. & Winkler, Anne E., 2014. "How Did the Housing and Labor Market Crises Affect Young Adults' Living Arrangements?," IZA Discussion Papers 8568, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    household information; mobility; student loans;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D14 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Saving; Personal Finance
    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • R21 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Housing Demand

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fip:fednsr:700. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/frbnyus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/frbnyus.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.