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Extensive and intensive trade margins: a state-by-state view

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  • Cletus C. Coughlin

Abstract

This paper examines a topic of increasing interest, the potential determinants of extensive (i.e., number of firms) and intensive (i.e., average exports per firm) trade margins, using state-level trade to 190 countries. In addition to distance and country size, other factors affecting trade costs and export demand are explored. In state-by-state regressions, these other factors exhibit more consistent and statistically significant effects on the extensive than on the intensive trade margin. One noteworthy finding is that U.S. foreign direct investment has a positive effect on both margins. In regressions using all state-level data simultaneously, some factors affect both margins, but not necessarily in the same way. For example, the impact of the communications infrastructure in the importing country affects the extensive margin positively and the intensive margin negatively. Finally, reasons for differences across states, such as state size and trade missions, are identified.

Suggested Citation

  • Cletus C. Coughlin, 2012. "Extensive and intensive trade margins: a state-by-state view," Working Papers 2012-002, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedlwp:2012-002
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Martina Lawless, 2010. "Deconstructing gravity: trade costs and extensive and intensive margins," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 43(4), pages 1149-1172, November.
    2. Andrew J. Cassey, 2011. "State Foreign Export Patterns," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 78(2), pages 308-329, October.
    3. Thomas Chaney, 2008. "Distorted Gravity: The Intensive and Extensive Margins of International Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(4), pages 1707-1721, September.
    4. Timothy J. Kehoe & Kim J. Ruhl, 2013. "How Important Is the New Goods Margin in International Trade?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 121(2), pages 358-392.
    5. Buono, Ines & Lalanne, Guy, 2012. "The effect of the Uruguay round on the intensive and extensive margins of trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(2), pages 269-283.
    6. Maria Persson, 2013. "Trade facilitation and the extensive margin," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(5), pages 658-693, August.
    7. Hillberry, Russell & Hummels, David, 2008. "Trade responses to geographic frictions: A decomposition using micro-data," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 527-550, April.
    8. Markusen, James R., 2013. "Expansion of trade at the extensive margin: A general gains-from-trade result and illustrative examples," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, pages 262-270.
    9. Cletus C. Coughlin & Howard J. Wall, "undated". "Ethnic Networks and Trade: Intensive vs. Extensive Margins," Discussion Papers 11/02, University of Nottingham, GEP.
    10. Simeon Djankov & Caroline Freund & Cong S. Pham, 2010. "Trading on Time," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 92(1), pages 166-173, February.
    11. Antoine Berthou & Lionel Fontagné, 2008. "The Euro and the Intensive and Extensive Margins of Trade: Evidence from French Firm Level Data," Working Papers 2008-06, CEPII research center.
    12. Cletus C. Coughlin, 2010. "Measuring international trade policy: a primer on trade restrictiveness indices," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Sep, pages 381-394.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:iburev:v:27:y:2018:i:1:p:231-245 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Santana-Gallego, María & Ledesma-Rodríguez, Francisco J. & Pérez-Rodríguez, Jorge V., 2016. "International trade and tourism flows: An extension of the gravity model," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 52(PB), pages 1026-1033.
    3. Gnidchenko, A., 2014. "Decomposing Export Growth into Extensive and Intensive Margins with the Emphasis on Comparative Advantages," Journal of the New Economic Association, New Economic Association, vol. 24(4), pages 38-64.

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    Keywords

    Exports ; International trade;

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