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International trade and tourism flows: An extension of the gravity model

Author

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  • Santana-Gallego, María
  • Ledesma-Rodríguez, Francisco J.
  • Pérez-Rodríguez, Jorge V.

Abstract

The empirical relationship between trade and tourism has been explored during recent years finding that international tourism promotes international trade between countries. However, the impact of tourism on trade flows has been neglected within standard international trade models such as the gravity equation. The main aim of this paper is to provide empirical and theoretical evidence that tourism matters for international trade. To that end, the framework proposed by Helpman, Melitz and Rubinstein (2008) is used by recognising that tourism flows could reduce fixed and variable costs of exporting. Moreover, once the model is estimated, the empirical evidence suggests that tourism increases both the probability of two countries trading with each other and the volume of international trade between them.

Suggested Citation

  • Santana-Gallego, María & Ledesma-Rodríguez, Francisco J. & Pérez-Rodríguez, Jorge V., 2016. "International trade and tourism flows: An extension of the gravity model," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 52(PB), pages 1026-1033.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecmode:v:52:y:2016:i:pb:p:1026-1033
    DOI: 10.1016/j.econmod.2015.10.043
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Ogechi Adeola & Olaniyi Evans, 2020. "ICT, infrastructure, and tourism development in Africa," Tourism Economics, , vol. 26(1), pages 97-114, February.
    2. Andrea Saayman & Paolo Figini & Silvio Cassella, 2016. "The influence of formal trade agreements and informal economic cooperation on international tourism flows," Tourism Economics, , vol. 22(6), pages 1274-1300, December.
    3. Li, Chang & Yang, Lianxing, 2020. "Import to invest: Impact of cultural goods on cross-border mergers and acquisitions," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 354-364.
    4. Claudio Calero & Lindsay W Turner, 2020. "Regional economic development and tourism: A literature review to highlight future directions for regional tourism research," Tourism Economics, , vol. 26(1), pages 3-26, February.
    5. Mukesh Kumar & Sanjeev Prashar & RK Jana, 2019. "Does international tourism spur international trade and output? Evidence from wavelet analysis," Tourism Economics, , vol. 25(1), pages 22-33, February.
    6. Emanuele Breda & Giacomo Oddo, 2019. "The determinants of foreign tourism demand: separating elasticities for the extensive and the intensive margin," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 482, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    7. Wai Hong Kan Tsui & Faruk Balli & David Tat Wei Tan & Oscar Lau & Mudassar Hasan, 2018. "New Zealand business tourism," Tourism Economics, , vol. 24(4), pages 386-417, June.
    8. Usman Khalid & Luke Emeka Okafor & Nusrate Aziz, 2020. "Armed conflict, military expenditure and international tourism," Tourism Economics, , vol. 26(4), pages 555-577, June.
    9. Recep Ulucak & Ali Gökhan Yücel & Salih Çağrı İlkay, 2020. "Dynamics of tourism demand in Turkey: Panel data analysis using gravity model," Tourism Economics, , vol. 26(8), pages 1394-1414, December.

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