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Bank integration and financial constraints: evidence from U.S. firms

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Abstract

This paper uses data on publicly-traded firms in the U.S. to analyze the effect of interstate bank integration on the financial constraints borrowers face. A firm-level investment equation is estimated in order to test if bank integration reduces the sensitivity of capital expenditures to the level of internal funds. The staggered deregulation of cross-state bank acquisitions that took place in the U.S. between 1978 and 1994 helps estimate the model. Integration decreases financing constraints for bank-dependent firms. The change in firms' access to external finance is explained by an increase in the share of locally headquartered geographically diversified banks.

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  • Ricardo Correa, 2008. "Bank integration and financial constraints: evidence from U.S. firms," International Finance Discussion Papers 925, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgif:925
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    1. Muhammad Saad Baloch & Abubakr Saeed & Ishtiaq Ahmed & Judit Oláh & József Popp & Domicián Máté, 2018. "Role of Domestic Financial Reforms and Internationalization of Non-Financial Transnational Firms: Evidence from the Chinese Market," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 10(11), pages 1-16, October.
    2. Gillian G. H. Garcia, 2009. "Sovereignty Versus Soundness: Cross‐Border/Interstate Banking In The European Union And In The United States: Similarities, Differences And Policy Issues," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 27(1), pages 109-129, January.
    3. Karakaya, Neslihan & Michalski, Tomasz K. & Örs, Evren, 2022. "Banking integration and growth: Role of banks' previous industry exposure," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 49(C).
    4. Calomiris, Charles W. & Larrain, Mauricio & Liberti, José & Sturgess, Jason, 2017. "How collateral laws shape lending and sectoral activity," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 123(1), pages 163-188.
    5. Erel, Isil, 2007. "The Effect of Bank Mergers on Loan Prices: Evidence from the U.S," Working Paper Series 2006-19, Ohio State University, Charles A. Dice Center for Research in Financial Economics.
    6. Chu, Yongqiang, 2018. "Banking deregulation and credit supply: Distinguishing the balance sheet and the competition channels," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 35(PA), pages 102-119.
    7. Charles W. Calomiris & Stephen H. Haber, 2014. "Interest Groups and the Glass-Steagall Act," ifo DICE Report, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 11(4), pages 14-18, 01.
    8. Charles W. Calomiris & Stephen H. Haber, 2014. "Interest Groups and the Glass-Steagall Act," ifo DICE Report, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 11(04), pages 14-18, January.
    9. Masami Imai & Seitaro Takarabe, 2009. "Bank Integration and Local Credit Cycle:Evidence from Japan," Wesleyan Economics Working Papers 2009-002, Wesleyan University, Department of Economics.

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