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Did 9/11 worsen the job prospects of Hispanic immigrants?


  • Orrenius, Pia M.

    () (Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas)

  • Zavodny, Madeline


This paper examines whether the economic aftermath of 9/11 had an adverse impact on the labor market outcomes of male immigrants from Latin America, who compose the bulk of undocumented foreign-born workers in the U.S. The crackdown on use of fraudulent Social Security numbers, increased requirements for government-issued identification, and other changes associated with greater focus on national security likely lowered the demand for foreign-born workers - particularly the undocumented - relative to natives after 9/11. The relative decline in demand for such workers could have negatively affected employment, hours worked, and earnings. Using Current Population Survey data and a difference-in-difference estimation technique, we find a negative impact after 9/11 on earnings and hours worked among recent male Hispanic immigrants vis-à-vis natives and a negative effect on employment, hours worked, and earnings vis-à-vis Hispanic immigrants who had been in the U.S. longer.

Suggested Citation

  • Orrenius, Pia M. & Zavodny, Madeline, 2005. "Did 9/11 worsen the job prospects of Hispanic immigrants?," Working Papers 0508, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:feddwp:05-08 Note: Published as: Orrenius, Pia M. and Madeline Zavodny (2009), "The Effects of Tougher Enforcement on the Job Prospects of Recent Latin American Immigrants," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 28 (2): 239-257.

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Erica L. Groshen & Simon M. Potter, 2003. "Has structural change contributed to a jobless recovery?," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 9(Aug).
    2. Orrenius, Pia M. & Zavodny, Madeline, 2005. "Self-selection among undocumented immigrants from Mexico," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(1), pages 215-240, October.
    3. B. Lowell & Jay Teachman & Zhongren Jing, 1995. "Unintended consequences of Immigration Reform: Discrimination and hispanic employment," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 32(4), pages 617-628, November.
    4. C. Bansak & S. Raphael, "undated". "Immigration Reform and the Earnings of Latino Workers: Do Employer Sanctions Cause Discrimination?," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1181-98, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
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    Cited by:

    1. Simone Schüller, 2016. "The Effects of 9/11 on Attitudes toward Immigration and the Moderating Role of Education," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 69(4), pages 604-632, November.
    2. Cornelissen, Thomas & Jirjahn, Uwe, 2012. "September 11th and the earnings of Muslims in Germany—The moderating role of education and firm size," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 81(2), pages 490-504.
    3. Nils Braakmann, 2007. "Islamistic Terror, the War on Iraq and the Job Prospects of Arab Men in Britain: Does a Country’s Direct Involvement Matter? This paper examines whether the labor market prospects of Arab men in Engla," Working Paper Series in Economics 70, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.

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    National security; Identification cards - Forgeries; Immigrants;

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