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Job creation, job destruction, and international competition: job flows and trade: the case of NAFTA


  • Michael W. Klein
  • Scott Schuh
  • Robert K. Triest


This paper is a chapter in our forthcoming monograph, Job Creation, Job Destruction, and International Competition (W.E. Upjohn Institute 2003), and expands on the ideas advanced in Klein, Schuh, and Triest (2003). The chapter is a case study of the impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on the U.S. labor market in three industries: textiles and apparel, chemicals, and automobiles. NAFTA significantly altered the trade environment for these industries and contributed to changes in the bilateral export-import structure among the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Our innovation is to examine NAFTA's effect on gross job creation and destruction, the components of change in net employment. Except for a more rapid decline in apparel employment, there is little evidence of NAFTA's having had major effects on either net employment or gross job flows in these industries.

Suggested Citation

  • Michael W. Klein & Scott Schuh & Robert K. Triest, 2002. "Job creation, job destruction, and international competition: job flows and trade: the case of NAFTA," Working Papers 02-8, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedbwp:02-8

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Carsten Kowalczyk & Donald R. Davis, 1998. "Tariff Phase-Outs: Theory and Evidence from GATT and NAFTA," NBER Chapters,in: The Regionalization of the World Economy, pages 227-258 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Steven J. Davis & John C. Haltiwanger & Scott Schuh, 1998. "Job Creation and Destruction," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262540932, July.
    3. Tybout, James R. & Westbrook, M. Daniel, 1995. "Trade liberalization and the dimensions of efficiency change in Mexican manufacturing industries," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1-2), pages 53-78, August.
    4. John C. Haltiwanger & Scott Schuh, 1999. "Gross job flows between plants and industries," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue Mar, pages 41-64.
    5. Cletus Coughlin & Howard Wall, 2003. "NAFTA and the changing pattern of state exports," Papers in Regional Science, Springer;Regional Science Association International, vol. 82(4), pages 427-450, November.
    6. Klein, Michael W. & Schuh, Scott & Triest, Robert K., 2003. "Job creation, job destruction, and the real exchange rate," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(2), pages 239-265, March.
    7. Anne O. Krueger, 1999. "Trade Creation and Trade Diversion Under NAFTA," NBER Working Papers 7429, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Dale Heien & Eric N. Sims, 2000. "The Impact of the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement on U.S. Wine Exports," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 82(1), pages 173-182.
    9. Gordon H. Hanson & Ann Harrison, 1999. "Trade Liberalization and Wage Inequality in Mexico," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 52(2), pages 271-288, January.
    10. Robert Feenstra & Gordon Hanson, 2001. "Global Production Sharing and Rising Inequality: A Survey of Trade and Wages," NBER Working Papers 8372, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Mary E. Burfisher & Sherman Robinson & Karen Thierfelder, 2001. "The Impact of NAFTA on the United States," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(1), pages 125-144, Winter.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ligia Melo & Carlos Ballesteros, 2014. "The impact of external factors on job creation and destruction in the Colombian manufacturing sector," Lecturas de Economía, Universidad de Antioquia, Departamento de Economía, issue 81, pages 155-186, Julio - D.
    2. Schuster, Philip, 2012. "Employment Protection, Labor Market Turnover, and the Effects of Globalization," Economics Series 288, Institute for Advanced Studies.
    3. Bernard Hoekman & Alan L. Winters, 2005. "Trade and Employment: Stylized Facts and Research Findings," Working Papers 7, United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs.


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