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Evidence of demand factors in the determination of the labor market intermittency penalty


  • Julie L. Hotchkiss
  • M. Melinda Pitts


The purpose of this paper is to determine whether any empirical evidence exists for the contribution of employer, or demand-side, determinants of the labor market intermittency penalty. The documented negative relationship between the size of the penalty and labor market strength is interpreted as evidence that labor market intermittency is viewed as an undesirable characteristic that employers penalize more severely when the labor market is weak.

Suggested Citation

  • Julie L. Hotchkiss & M. Melinda Pitts, 2007. "Evidence of demand factors in the determination of the labor market intermittency penalty," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2007-16, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedawp:2007-16

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Harry J. Holzer & Michael A. Stoll, 2003. "Employer Demand for Welfare Recipients by Race," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(1), pages 210-241, January.
    2. Kenneth Couch & Robert Fairlie, 2010. "Last hired, first fired? black-white unemployment and the business cycle," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 47(1), pages 227-247, February.
    3. Elaine Sorensen, 1993. "Continuous Female Workers: How Different Are They from Other Women?," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 19(1), pages 15-32, Winter.
    4. Hausman, Jerry, 2015. "Specification tests in econometrics," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 38(2), pages 112-134.
    5. Julie L. Hotchkiss, 2003. "The Labor Market Experience of Workers with Disabilities: The ADA and Beyond," Books from Upjohn Press, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, number lmewd, November.
    6. Julie L. Hotchkiss & M. Melinda Pitts, 2003. "Female labor force intermittency and current earnings: a switching regression model with unknown sample selection," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2003-33, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    7. Thomas J. Kniesner & Arthur H. Padilla & Solomon W. Polachek, 1978. "The Rate of Return to Schooling and the Business Cycle," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 13(2), pages 264-277.
    8. James W. Albrecht & Per-Anders Edin & Marianne Sundström & Susan B. Vroman, 1999. "Career Interruptions and Subsequent Earnings: A Reexamination Using Swedish Data," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 34(2), pages 294-311.
    9. M. Melinda Pitts, 2002. "Why choose women's work if it pays less? A structural model of occupational choice," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2002-30, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    10. Richard B. Freeman, 1973. "Changes in the Labor Market for Black Americans, 1948-72," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 4(1), pages 67-132.
    11. Heckman, James J & Payner, Brook S, 1989. "Determining the Impact of Federal Antidiscrimination Policy on the Economic Status of Blacks: A Study of South Carolina," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(1), pages 138-177, March.
    12. Julie L. Hotchkiss & John C. Robertson, 2006. "Asymmetric labor force participation decisions over the business cycle: evidence from U.S. microdata," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2006-08, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    13. Kandil, Magda & Woods, Jeffrey G., 2002. "Convergence of the gender gap over the business cycle: a sectoral investigation," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 54(3), pages 271-292.
    14. Polachek, Solomon William, 1981. "Occupational Self-Selection: A Human Capital Approach to Sex Differences in Occupational Structure," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 63(1), pages 60-69, February.
    15. Heather Boushey, 2002. "Reworking the Wage Curve: Exploring the consistency of the model across time, space and demographic group," Review of Political Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(3), pages 293-311.
    16. Julie L. Hotchkiss & M. Melinda Pitts, 2007. "The Role of Labor Market Intermittency in Explaining Gender Wage Differentials," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(2), pages 417-421, May.
    17. Jacob Mincer & Haim Ofek, 1982. "Interrupted Work Careers: Depreciation and Restoration of Human Capital," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 17(1), pages 3-24.
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