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Continuous Female Workers: How Different Are They from Other Women?

Author

Listed:
  • Elaine Sorensen

    (Urban Institute)

Abstract

Many economists have argued that women earn less than men because they work intermittently. Although several studies have estimated the extent to which intermittent labor force participation affects women's earnings, previous research has not compared the labor market outcomes of women who work continuously to those of other women. This paper estimates a bivariate probit selection model for intermittent and continuous female workers. The results show that women who work continuously have higher levels of education and are more likely to have remained single and childless than other women. The paper also finds a large pay disparity between intermittent and continuous female workers, most of which is due to differences in measured characteristics. Implications for labor market discrimination are discussed.

Suggested Citation

  • Elaine Sorensen, 1993. "Continuous Female Workers: How Different Are They from Other Women?," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 19(1), pages 15-32, Winter.
  • Handle: RePEc:eej:eeconj:v:19:y:1993:i:1:p:15-32
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    File URL: http://web.holycross.edu/RePEc/eej/Archive/Volume19/V19N1P15_32.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Goldin, Claudia, 1989. "Life-Cycle Labor-Force Participation of Married Women: Historical Evidence and Implications," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 7(1), pages 20-47, January.
    2. Mincer, Jacob & Polachek, Solomon, 1974. "Family Investment in Human Capital: Earnings of Women," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(2), pages 76-108, Part II, .
    3. Goldin, Claudia & Polachek, Solomon, 1987. "Residual Differences by Sex: Perspectives on the Gender Gap in Earnings," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(2), pages 143-151, May.
    4. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
    5. Blakemore, Arthur E & Low, Stuart A, 1984. "Sex Differences in Occupational Selection: The Case of College Majors," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 66(1), pages 157-163, February.
    6. Gronau, Reuben, 1974. "Wage Comparisons-A Selectivity Bias," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(6), pages 1119-1143, Nov.-Dec..
    7. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
    8. Blau, Francine D & Ferber, Marianne A, 1987. "Discrimination: Empirical Evidence from the United States," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(2), pages 316-320, May.
    9. Jacob Mincer & Haim Ofek, 1982. "Interrupted Work Careers: Depreciation and Restoration of Human Capital," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 17(1), pages 3-24.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Julie L. Hotchkiss & M. Melinda Pitts & Mary Beth Walker, 2017. "Impact of first birth career interruption on earnings: evidence from administrative data," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(35), pages 3509-3522, July.
    2. Julie L. Hotchkiss & M. Melinda Pitts, 2007. "Evidence of demand factors in the determination of the labor market intermittency penalty," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2007-16, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    3. Polachek, Solomon W., 2008. "Earnings Over the Life Cycle: The Mincer Earnings Function and Its Applications," Foundations and Trends(R) in Microeconomics, now publishers, vol. 4(3), pages 165-272, April.
    4. Cengiz Kallek, 1998. "Economic Views of ABU UBAYD," IIUM Journal of Economics and Management, IIUM Journal of Economis and Management, vol. 6(1), pages 1-22.
    5. Julie L. Hotchkiss & M. Melinda Pitts, 2007. "The Role of Labor Market Intermittency in Explaining Gender Wage Differentials," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(2), pages 417-421, May.
    6. Mansor H. Ibrahim, 1998. "Bayesian Estimation Of A Simple Simultaneous Equation Model Using Gibbs Sampling," IIUM Journal of Economics and Management, IIUM Journal of Economis and Management, vol. 6(1), pages 69-78, June.
    7. Patricia Apps & Jan Kabátek & Ray Rees & Arthur Soest, 2016. "Labor supply heterogeneity and demand for child care of mothers with young children," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 51(4), pages 1641-1677, December.
    8. Kabátek, Jan, 2015. "Essays on public policy and household decision making," Other publications TiSEM 8cdb178e-ad98-42e5-a7e1-b, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    9. Selamah Abdullah Yusof, 1998. "Labour Force Attachment: Explaining Gender-Differences In Earnings And Employment," IIUM Journal of Economics and Management, IIUM Journal of Economis and Management, vol. 6(1), pages 51-68, June.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Female; Women;

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination

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