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Transforming the European Energy System: Member States’ Prospects Within the EU Framework


  • Brigitte Knopf

    (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK))

  • Bjørn Bakken

    (SINTEF Energy Research)

  • Samuel Carrara

    (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei and Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change)

  • Amit Kanudia


  • Ilkka Keppo

    (University College London)

  • Tiina Koljonen

    (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland)

  • Silvana Mima

    (PACTE-EDDEN, CNRS, Université Grenoble Alpes)

  • Eva Schmid

    (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK))

  • Detlef van Vuuren

    (PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and Utrecht University, Department of Geosciences)


The Energy Modeling Forum 28 (EMF28) performed a large-scale model comparison exercise to illustrate different technology pathways for cutting European greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050. Focusing on selected countries (France, Germany, Italy, Sweden and UK), this paper first analyses climate and energy policy objectives and debates in the respective countries. It then compares EMF28 model results to the short-term projections of the National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAPs) and the long-term transformation pathway given in the European Commission’s “Energy Roadmap 2050”. It concludes that there is sufficient agreement with the NREAPs and national policies to accept the model results as conceivable scenarios. The scenarios suggest that in the future a variety of different national energy mixes will continue to reflect the different resource bases and preferences of individual Member States. In order to ensure a cost-efficient transformation, it is important to improve coordination between Member State policies and those at EU level.

Suggested Citation

  • Brigitte Knopf & Bjørn Bakken & Samuel Carrara & Amit Kanudia & Ilkka Keppo & Tiina Koljonen & Silvana Mima & Eva Schmid & Detlef van Vuuren, 2014. "Transforming the European Energy System: Member States’ Prospects Within the EU Framework," Working Papers 2014.14, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  • Handle: RePEc:fem:femwpa:2014.14

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Jochen Diekmann & Claudia Kemfert & Karsten Neuhoff, 2012. "Solarstromförderung: drastische Einschnitte nicht sinnvoll," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 79(12), pages 3-9.
    2. Lehmann, Paul & Gawel, Erik, 2013. "Why should support schemes for renewable electricity complement the EU emissions trading scheme?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 597-607.
    3. Edenhofer, Ottmar & Hirth, Lion & Knopf, Brigitte & Pahle, Michael & Schlömer, Steffen & Schmid, Eva & Ueckerdt, Falko, 2013. "On the economics of renewable energy sources," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(S1), pages 12-23.
    4. Bazilian, Morgan & Onyeji, Ijeoma & Liebreich, Michael & MacGill, Ian & Chase, Jennifer & Shah, Jigar & Gielen, Dolf & Arent, Doug & Landfear, Doug & Zhengrong, Shi, 2013. "Re-considering the economics of photovoltaic power," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 329-338.
    5. Brigitte Knopf & Yen-Heng Henry Chen & Enrica De Cian & Hannah Förster & Amit Kanudia & Ioanna Karkatsouli & Ilkka Keppo & Tiina Koljonen & Katja Schumacher & Detlef van Vuuren, 2014. "Beyond 2020 - Strategies and Costs for Transforming the European Energy System," Working Papers 2014.15, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    6. Grau, Thilo & Huo, Molin & Neuhoff, Karsten, 2012. "Survey of photovoltaic industry and policy in Germany and China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 20-37.
    7. Patrick Criqui & Silvana Mima, 2012. "European climate -- energy security nexus: A model based scenario analysis," Post-Print halshs-00661043, HAL.
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    Cited by:

    1. Hirth, Lion & Müller, Simon, 2016. "System-friendly wind power," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 51-63.
    2. Gawel, Erik & Strunz, Sebastian & Lehmann, Paul, 2014. "Wie viel Europa braucht die Energiewende?," UFZ Discussion Papers 4/2014, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ), Division of Social Sciences (ÖKUS).
    3. Knopf, Brigitte & Nahmmacher, Paul & Schmid, Eva, 2015. "The European renewable energy target for 2030 – An impact assessment of the electricity sector," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 50-60.
    4. Sebastian Strunz, Erik Gawel, and Paul Lehmann, 2015. "Towards a general Europeanization of EU Member States energy policies?," Economics of Energy & Environmental Policy, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2).
    5. repec:eee:enepol:v:110:y:2017:i:c:p:509-517 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Schmid, Eva & Knopf, Brigitte, 2015. "Quantifying the long-term economic benefits of European electricity system integration," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 260-269.
    7. Lion Hirth, 2015. "The Optimal Share of Variable Renewables: How the Variability of Wind and Solar Power affects their Welfare-optimal Deployment," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1).
    8. Lion Hirth & Falko Ueckerdt & Ottmar Edenhofer, 2014. "Why Wind Is Not Coal: On the Economics of Electricity," Working Papers 2014.39, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    9. Brigitte Knopf & Nicolas Koch & Godefroy Grosjean & Sabine Fuss & Christian Flachsland & Michael Pahle & Michael Jakob & Ottmar Edenhofer, 2014. "The European Emissions Trading System (EU ETS): Ex-Post Analysis, the Market Stability Reserve and Options for a Comprehensive Reform," Working Papers 2014.79, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    10. Hirth, Lion & Ziegenhagen, Inka, 2015. "Balancing power and variable renewables: Three links," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 1035-1051.
    11. Creutzig, Felix & Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph & Lehmann, Paul & Schmid, Eva & von Blücher, Felix & Breyer, Christian & Fernandez, Blanca & Jakob, Michael & Knopf, Brigitte & Lohrey, Steffen & Susca, Ti, 2014. "Catching two European birds with one renewable stone: Mitigating climate change and Eurozone crisis by an energy transition," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 1015-1028.

    More about this item


    European Climate and Energy Policy; National Renewable Action Plans (Nreaps); Environmental Federalism; Mitigation Scenarios;

    JEL classification:

    • Q2 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q4 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy

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