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Female Employment and Occupational Changes in the 1990s: How is the EU Performing Relative to the US?

Author

Listed:
  • Juan J. Dolado
  • Florentino Felgueroso
  • Juan F. Jimeno

Abstract

This paper provides a comparison of the incidence and composition of female employment both in the EU and in the US. Despite a significant increase in female labour market participation in the EU, about 50% of the difference between the employment rates in the US and the EU can still be attributed to differences in the educational attainments and the employment rates of women aged 25-54. We highlight the main features of femaleemployment in both areas, paying particular attention to the differences across age cohorts and educational levels. Our main findings are as follows: i) the educational level of the EU female population is slowly converging to that of the US, ii) the employment rates of less educated women are much lower in the EU than in the US (with the exceptions of the Scandinavian countries) even for women aged 25-34, and iii) occupational segregation is lower for the younger highly educated women who seem to be entering more typically male occupations and less typically female occupations, although at a higher rate in the US than in the EU.

Suggested Citation

  • Juan J. Dolado & Florentino Felgueroso & Juan F. Jimeno, "undated". "Female Employment and Occupational Changes in the 1990s: How is the EU Performing Relative to the US?," Working Papers 2000-18, FEDEA.
  • Handle: RePEc:fda:fdaddt:2000-18
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Dora L. Costa, 2000. "From Mill Town to Board Room: The Rise of Women's Paid Labor," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(4), pages 101-122, Fall.
    2. Claudia Goldin & Lawrence F. Katz, 1999. "The Shaping of Higher Education: The Formative Years in the United States, 1890 to 1940," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 13(1), pages 37-62, Winter.
    3. Chinhui Juhn & Sandra E. Black, 2000. "The Rise of Female Professionals: Are Women Responding to Skill Demand?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(2), pages 450-455, May.
    4. Claudia Goldin & Lawrence F. Katz, 1997. "Why the United States Led in Education: Lessons from Secondary School Expansion, 1910 to 1940," NBER Working Papers 6144, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. repec:hrv:faseco:30747152 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Francine Blau & Patricia Simpson & Deborah Anderson, 1998. "Continuing Progress? Trends in Occupational Segregation in the United States over the 1970s and 1980s," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(3), pages 29-71.
    7. Claudia Goldin, 1999. "A Brief History of Education in the United States," NBER Historical Working Papers 0119, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Schneeweis, Nicole & Zweimüller, Martina, 2012. "Girls, girls, girls: Gender composition and female school choice," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 482-500.
    2. International Monetary Fund, 2004. "France; Selected Issues," IMF Staff Country Reports 04/346, International Monetary Fund.
    3. Havnes, Tarjei & Mogstad, Magne, 2011. "Money for nothing? Universal child care and maternal employment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(11), pages 1455-1465.
    4. Wei-Bin ZHANG, 2014. "Gender Discrimination, Education and Economic Growth in a Generalized Uzawa-Lucas Two-Sector Model," Timisoara Journal of Economics and Business, West University of Timisoara, Romania, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, vol. 7(1), pages 1-34.
    5. Gregory Verdugo & Guilllaume Allègre, 2017. "Labour force participation and job polarization : evidence from Europe during the Great Recession," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE 2017-16, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).
    6. Juan F. Jimeno & Diego Rodríguez-Palenzuela, "undated". "Youth unemployment in the OECD: Demographic shifts, labour market institutions, and macroeconomic shocks," Working Papers 2002-15, FEDEA.
    7. repec:spr:jlabre:v:38:y:2017:i:2:d:10.1007_s12122-017-9244-9 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Juan J. Dolado & Florentino Felgueroso & Juan F. Jimeno., "undated". "Recent Trends in Occupational Segregation by Gender: A Look Across the Atlantic," Working Papers 2002-11, FEDEA.
    9. Juan Dolado & Florentino Felgueroso & Miguel Almunia, 2012. "Are men and women-economists evenly distributed across research fields? Some new empirical evidence," SERIEs: Journal of the Spanish Economic Association, Springer;Spanish Economic Association, vol. 3(3), pages 367-393, September.
    10. Inmaculada García-Mainar & Guillermo García-Martín & Víctor Montuenga, 2015. "Over-education and Gender Occupational Differences in Spain," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 124(3), pages 807-833, December.
    11. Wolf, Elke & Heinze, Anja, 2007. "How to Limit Discrimination? Analyzing the Effects of Innovative Workplace Practices on Intra-Firm Gender Wage Gaps Using Linked Employer-Employee Data," ZEW Discussion Papers 07-077, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    12. repec:dau:papers:123456789/1902 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J44 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Professional Labor Markets and Occupations

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