Agency, Education and Networks: Gender and International Migration from Albania
Our paper examines the causes and dynamics of the shift in the gender composition of migration, and more particularly, in the access of women to migration opportunities and decision making. We do this in the context of Albania, a natural laboratory for studying migration developments given that out-migration was practically eliminated from the end of WWII to the end of the 1980s. We use micro-level data from the Albania 2005 LSMS including migration histories for family members since migration began. Our analysis, based on discrete-time hazard models, shows an impressive expansion of female participation in international migration. Female migration, which we find to be strongly associated with education, wealth, and social capital, appears responsive to economic incentives and constraints. Yet, using unique data on the dependency of female migration to the household demographic structure as well as the sensitivity of female migration to household-level shocks, we show that it is the households themselves that are the decision-making agents behind this economic calculus and there is little to suggest that increased female migration signals the emergence of female agency.
|Date of creation:||2008|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Agricultural Sector in Economic Development Service FAO Viale delle Terme di Caracalla 00153 Rome Italy|
Phone: +39(6) 57051
Fax: +39 06 57055522
Web page: http://www.fao.org/es/esa/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- David Mckenzie & Hillel Rapoport, 2004.
"Network Effects and the Dynamics of Migration and Inequality: Theory and Evidence from Mexico,"
2004-3, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
- Mckenzie, David & Rapoport, Hillel, 2007. "Network effects and the dynamics of migration and inequality: Theory and evidence from Mexico," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(1), pages 1-24, September.
- Paul Winters & Alain de Janvry & Elisabeth Sadoulet, 2001.
"Family and Community Networks in Mexico-U.S. Migration,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 36(1), pages 159-184.
- Winters, Paul C. & de Janvry, Alain & Sadoulet, Elisabeth, 1999. "Family And Community Networks In Mexico-U.S. Migration," Working Papers 12907, University of New England, School of Economics.
- Sara Curran & Estela Rivero-Fuentes, 2003. "Engendering migrant networks: The case of Mexican migration," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 40(2), pages 289-307, May.
- Benjamin Davis & Paul Winters, 2002.
"Gender, Networks and Mexico-US Migration,"
02-03, Agricultural and Development Economics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO - ESA).
- Kaivan Munshi, 2003. "Networks in the Modern Economy: Mexican Migrants in the U. S. Labor Market," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 118(2), pages 549-599.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R. & Stark, Oded, 1987.
"Consumption Smoothing, Migration and Marriage: Evidence from Rural India,"
7515, University of Minnesota, Economic Development Center.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R & Stark, Oded, 1989. "Consumption Smoothing, Migration, and Marriage: Evidence from Rural India," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 905-26, August.
- Marcela Cerrutti & Douglas Massey, 2001. "On the auspices of female migration from Mexico to the United States," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 38(2), pages 187-200, May.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fao:wpaper:0802. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Gustavo Anríquez)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.