Determinants of branded prescription medicine prices in OECD countries
This paper investigates the determinants of the prices of branded prescription medicines across different regulatory settings and health care systems, taking into account their launch date, patent status, market dynamics and the regulatory context in which they diffuse. By using volume-weighted price indices, this paper analyzes price levels for a basket of prescription medicines and their differences in 15 OECD countries, including the United States and key European countries, the impact of distribution margins and generic entry on public prices and to what extent innovation, by means of introducing newer classes of medicines, contributes to price formation across countries. In doing so, the paper seeks to understand the factors that contribute to the existing differences in prices across countries, whether at an ex-factory or a retail level. The evidence shows that retail prices for branded prescription medicines in the United States are higher than those in key European and other OECD countries, but not as high as widely thought. Large differences in prices are mainly observed at an ex-factory level, but these are not the prices that consumers and payers pay. Cross-country differences in retail prices are actually not as high as expected and, when controlling for exchange rates, these differences can be even smaller. Product age has a significant effect on prices in all settings after having controlled for other factors. Price convergence is observed across countries for newer prescription medicines compared with older medicines. There is no evidence that originator brand prices fall after generic entry in the United States, a phenomenon known as the ‘generics paradox’. Finally, distribution and taxes are important determinants of retail prices in several of the study countries. To the extent that remuneration of the distribution chain and taxation are directly and proportionately linked to product prices this is likely to persist over time.
|Date of creation:||Jun 2011|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||Published in Health Economics, Policy and Law, June, 2011, 6(3), pp. 1-31. ISSN: 1744-1331|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: LSE Library Portugal Street London, WC2A 2HD, U.K.|
Phone: +44 (020) 7405 7686
Web page: http://www.lse.ac.uk/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Laura Magazzini & Fabio Pammolli & Massimo Riccaboni, 2004. "Dynamic competition in pharmaceuticals," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 5(2), pages 175-182, May.
- John A. Rizzo & Richard Zeckhauser, 2005. "Generic Scrip Share and the Price of Brand-Name Drugs: The Role of the Consumer," NBER Working Papers 11431, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Rizzo, John & Zeckhauser, Richard Jay, 2012.
"Generic Script Share and the Price of Brand-Name Drugs: The Role of Consumer Choice,"
8057977, Harvard Kennedy School of Government.
- John Rizzo & Richard Zeckhauser, 2009. "Generic script share and the price of brand-name drugs: the role of consumer choice," International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 291-316, September.
- Desiraju, Ramarao & Nair, Harikesh S. & Chintagunta, Pradeep, 2004. "Diffusion of New Pharmaceutical Drugs in Developing and Developed Nations," Research Papers 1950, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
- Rizzo, John A, 1999. "Advertising and Competition in the Ethical Pharmaceutical Industry: The Case of Antihypertensive Drugs," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 42(1), pages 89-116, April.
- Paul Grootendorst & David Stewart, 2006. "A re-examination of the impact of reference pricing on anti-hypertensive drug plan expenditures in British Columbia," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(7), pages 735-742.
- Ernst R. Berndt & Zvi Griliches & Joshua G. Rosett, 1992.
"Auditing the Producer Price Index: Micro Evidence From Prescription Pharmaceutical Preparations,"
NBER Working Papers
4009, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Berndt, Ernst R & Griliches, Zvi & Rosett, Joshua G, 1993. "Auditing the Producer Price Index: Micro Evidence from Prescription Pharamceutical Preparations," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 11(3), pages 251-64, July.
- Grabowski, Henry & Vernon, John, 1986. "Longer Patents for Lower Imitation Barriers: The 1984 Drug Act," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 195-98, May.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ehl:lserod:36351. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (LSERO Manager)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.