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Desempeño escolar y elección de colegios: La experiencia chilena

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  • Alejandra Mizala

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  • Pilar Romaguera

    ()

Abstract

Hoy en día existe una creciente preocupación sobre el tema de la calidad de la educación, derivada en parte del reconocimiento de sus efectos sobre la distribución del ingreso y el crecimiento económico. Sin embargo, la experiencia nos señala que este desafío es complejo. Tanto los países en desarrollo como los países desarrollados han, por una parte, gastado una creciente cantidad de recursos y, por otra, implementado diversas reformas con el fin de mejorar la calidad de la educación; muchas veces los resultados no han estado de acuerdo a lo esperado. Chile ha sido uno de los países que ha introducido reformas novedosas en el sistema educativo: descentralización, subsidios a la demanda y elección de colegios como estímulo a la competencia, evaluaciones estandarizadas como la prueba SIMCE, programas especiales (como el MECE), programas de apoyo focalizado a las escuelas más pobres (P-900), entre otras medidas. Una de las reformas más interesantes ha sido la introducción de un sistema de subvenciones escolares (similares a un voucher) y la entrada de agentes privados en la provisión de servicios educativos gratuitos. Chile, en la práctica, ha implementado una de las reformas más discutidas a nivel internacional, como lo demuestra la extensa discusión sobre las políticas de elección de colegios (choice). El propósito de este trabajo es examinar la experiencia chilena focalizándose, por una parte, en las reformas que buscan emular o crear mecanismos de mercado como forma de incentivar la calidad del proceso educativo, y por otra, en el análisis del rendimiento escolar de los establecimientos educacionales según su tipo de dependencia.

Suggested Citation

  • Alejandra Mizala & Pilar Romaguera, 1998. "Desempeño escolar y elección de colegios: La experiencia chilena," Documentos de Trabajo 36, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.
  • Handle: RePEc:edj:ceauch:36
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    File URL: http://www.dii.uchile.cl/~cea/sitedev/cea/www/download.php?file=documentos_trabajo/ASOCFILE120030402123414.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Eric A. Hanushek, 1979. "Conceptual and Empirical Issues in the Estimation of Educational Production Functions," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 14(3), pages 351-388.
    2. Ritzen, Jozef M. M. & van Dommelen, Jan & De Vijlder, Frans J., 1997. "School finance and school choice in the Netherlands," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 329-335, June.
    3. Cecilia Elena Rouse, 1997. "Private School Vouchers and Student Achievement: An Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program," NBER Working Papers 5964, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Levin, Henry M., 1991. "The economics of educational choice," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 137-158, June.
    5. West, Edwin G, 1997. "Education Vouchers in Principle and Practice: A Survey," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 12(1), pages 83-103, February.
    6. Cristían Aedo, 1997. "Organización Industrial de la Prestación de Servicios Sociales," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 7561, Inter-American Development Bank.
    7. Winkler, Donald R. & Rounds, Taryn, 1996. "Municipal and private sector response to decentralization and school choice," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 365-376, October.
    8. Blair, John P. & Staley, Sam, 1995. "Quality competition and public schools: Further evidence," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 193-198, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Jairo NUÑEZ MENDEZ & Roberto STEINER & Ximena CADENA & Renata PARDO, 2002. "¿Cuáles colegios ofrecen mejor educación en Colombia?," ARCHIVOS DE ECONOMÍA 003795, DEPARTAMENTO NACIONAL DE PLANEACIÓN.
    2. Marcela Rom‡n & Marcela Perticar‡, 2012. "Student mobility in low quality schools: Segmentation among the most vulnerable students," Estudios de Economia, University of Chile, Department of Economics, vol. 39(2 Year 20), pages 159-177, December.
    3. Chang-Tai Hsieh & Miguel Urquiola, 2002. "When Schools Compete, How Do They Compete? An Assessment of Chile's Nationwide School Voucher Program," Working Papers 123, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Center for Economic Policy Studies..
    4. Herrera Gómez, Marcos, 2006. "Efecto de la Competencia de la Educación Privada sobre la Calidad de la Educación Pública
      [Effect of Private Education Competition on the Quality of Public Education]
      ," MPRA Paper 30772, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Cristian Aedo & Claudio Sapelli, "undated". "El Sistema De Vouchers En La Educación: Una Revisión De La Teoría Y La Evidencia Empírica Para Chile," ILADES-Georgetown University Working Papers inv133, Ilades-Georgetown University, Universidad Alberto Hurtado/School of Economics and Bussines.
    6. Carlson, Beverley A., 2000. "What schools teach us about educating poor children in Chile?," Revista CEPAL, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), December.
    7. Gauri, Varun & Vawda, Ayesha, 2003. "Vouchers for basic education in developing countries : a principal-agent perspective," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3005, The World Bank.

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