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Women's empowerment across the life cycle and generations: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

  • Florence Arestoff


    (PSL, Université Paris-Dauphine, LEDa, UMR DIAL)

  • Elodie Djemai


    (PSL, Université Paris-Dauphine, LEDa, UMR DIAL)

(english) Does female empowerment evolve over the life cycle, and has it changed across generations? We use data from the Demographic and Health Surveys covering a sample of about 191,000 adult women to evaluate the age, period and cohort effect regarding individual attitudes to marital violence. Pseudopanel data are constructed from repeated cross-sections from five African countries in the 2000s. The estimates show that, over the life cycle, women tend to think that marital violence is less and less justifiable, and that younger cohorts are less likely than older cohorts to view marital violence as justifiable, even controlling for education. In the full age-period-cohort decomposition, the age and period effects are the most important. Age effects are driven by changes in labor-force status, household composition and parenthood. _________________________________ (français) L'autonomisation des femmes, leur "empowerment", évolue-t-elle tout au long de leur cycle de vie ? S'est-elle renforcée au fil des générations ? A partir de données issues des Enquêtes Démographiques et de Santé portant sur un échantillon de 191 000 femmes adultes, nous estimons les effets d'âge, de période et de cohorte sur le refus de la violence conjugale, pris comme mesure de l'empowerment. Nous construisons un pseudo-panel en mobilisant des données de plusieurs vagues d'enquêtes consécutives menées dans cinq pays d'Afrique Sub-Saharienne au cours des années 2000. Les estimations montrent qu'en terme de cycle de vie, plus les femmes vieillissent, moins elles considèrent la violence conjugale comme justifiable. Parallèlement, en terme de générations, les femmes des plus jeunes cohortes ont une moindre probabilité d'accepter la violence conjugale, à niveau d'éducation donné. Dans la décomposition Age-Période-Cohorte, les effets de l'âge et de la période d'enquête se révèlent être les plus importants. On montre également que les effets de l'âge sont en partie expliqués par les changements de la situation des femmes sur le marché du travail, la composition de leur ménage et leur rôle de parent.

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Paper provided by DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation) in its series Working Papers with number DT/2013/16.

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Length: 28 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2013
Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt201316
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