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Additional work, family agriculture, and the birth of a first or a second child in Russia at the beginning of the 1990s

  • Christoph Bühler

    (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)

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    At the beginning of the transition period, many Russian households faced substantial economic hardships and uncertainties. An economic downturn had become one of the major factors respon-sible for the significant and rapid decline of Russian fertility. However, many households tried to cope with this situation by engaging in multiple income generating activities and the cultivation of food on private plots of land. The question therefore arises whether these activities had a posi-tive impact on fertility decisions. This paper explores the association between additional em-ployment or subsistence measures (second jobs, part-time self-employment, and part-time family agriculture) and the probability to have a first or a second child in Russia during 1990 and the spring of 1993. Data from 966 respondents from the Russian component of the survey "Social Stratification in Eastern Europe after 1989: General Population Survey" show that activities that generate an additional income were positively associated with the birth of a second child. This is especially the case if these activities produce half of a respondent’s or her household’s income. The birth of a second child was also positively associated with the fact that a household con-sumed food that was cultivated by the household itself. However, none of these activities was significantly connected with the birth of a second child.

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    Paper provided by Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany in its series MPIDR Working Papers with number WP-2003-012.

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    Length: 29 pages
    Date of creation: May 2003
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:dem:wpaper:wp-2003-012
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    1. Grün, Carola & Klasen, Stephan, 2000. "Growth, Income Distribution, And well-Being In Transition Countries," Discussion Papers in Economics 26, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
    2. E. Khibovskaia, 1995. "Secondary Employment As a Means of Adapting to Economic Reforms," Problems of Economic Transition, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 38(8), pages 21-35, December.
    3. UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. MONEE project, 2001. "A Decade of Transition," Papers remore01/15, Regional Monitoring Report.
    4. Dimiter Philipov, 2002. "Fertility in times of discontinuous societal change: the case of Central and Eastern Europe," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2002-024, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
    5. Commander, Simon & Tolstopiatenko, Andrei, 1996. "Why is unemployment low in the former Soviet Union? : enterprises restructuring and the structure of compensation," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1617, The World Bank.
    6. Lonkila, 1997. "Informal Exchange Relations in Post-Soviet Russia: A Comparative Perspective," Sociological Research Online, Sociological Research Online, vol. 2(2), pages 9.
    7. Lokshin, Michael & Harris, Kathleen Mullan & Popkin, Barry M., 2000. "Single Mothers in Russia: Household Strategies for Coping with Poverty," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(12), pages 2183-2198, December.
    8. Rose, Richard & McAllister, Ian, 1996. "Is Money the Measure of Welfare in Russia?," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 42(1), pages 75-90, March.
    9. UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. MONEE project, 2002. "Innocenti Social Monitor 2002," Papers insomo02/1, Innocenti Social Monitor.
    10. Buckley, Robert M & Gurenko, Eugene N, 1997. "Housing and Income Distribution in Russia: Zhivago's Legacy," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 12(1), pages 19-32, February.
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