Harmonization of Food Regulations and Trade in the Single Market : Evidence from Disaggregated Data
This paper uses a structural gravity model based on Anderson and van Wincoop (2003) to quantify and test the hypothesis that EU harmonization of food regulations increases EU bilateral trade. Using a self-constructed database that identifies processed food products at a detailed level covered by harmonization, our results suggest that bilateral exports subject to harmonized food regulations are 253 % greater than bilateral exports not covered by harmonized food regulations for 1998. The paper also estimates a tariff equivalent of trade costs that arises from non-harmonized food regulations which ranges between 73 % and 97 %. Both of these effects vary across food sub-sectors.
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