Some Child Cost Estimates for South Africa
The heterogeneous demographic composition of South African households means that the way that household income or expenditure is converted into an individual-level welfare measure is likely to matter. This paper examines the monetary and time costs of the most common economic dependents in households: children. The monetary costs of children are estimated at about half those of an adult. Time costs are substantial, and borne almost exclusively by women. Estimates that incorporate time costs suggest that children’s “full costs” are about twice monetary costs alone; with household resources fixed, the average, combined expenditure and time impact of children is very similar to adding an equivalent number of adults.
|Date of creation:||2008|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +44-(0)1865 271084
Fax: +44-(0)1865 281447
Web page: http://www.csae.ox.ac.uk/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Ingrid Woolard & Stephan Klasen, 2005.
"Determinants of Income Mobility and Household Poverty Dynamics in South Africa,"
Journal of Development Studies,
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(5), pages 865-897.
- Woolard, Ingrid & Klasen, Stephan, 2004. "Determinants of Income Mobility and Household Poverty Dynamics in South Africa," IZA Discussion Papers 1030, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Van Hoa, Tran & Ironmonger, D. S., 1989. "Equivalence scales : A household production approach," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 407-410, December.
- Gary S. Becker, 1960. "An Economic Analysis of Fertility," NBER Chapters, in: Demographic and Economic Change in Developed Countries, pages 209-240 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Apps, Patricia & Rees, Ray, 2001.
"Household production, full consumption and the costs of children,"
Elsevier, vol. 8(6), pages 621-648, December.
- Apps, Patricia & Rees, Ray, 2000. "Household Production, Full Consumption and the Costs of Children," IZA Discussion Papers 157, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Ai, Chunrong & Norton, Edward C., 2003. "Interaction terms in logit and probit models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 123-129, July.
- repec:cup:cbooks:9780521812832 is not listed on IDEAS
- Martin Wittenberg, 2005. "The school day in South Africa," SALDRU/CSSR Working Papers 113, Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town.
- Anne H. Gauthier & Timothy M. Smeeding & Frank F. Furstenberg, 2004. "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 30(4), pages 647-672.
- Paul Cichello & Gary Fields & Murray Leibbrandt, 2003. "Earnings and Employment Dynamics for Africans in Post-apartheid South Africa: A Panel Study of KwaZulu-Natal," Working Papers 03077, University of Cape Town, Development Policy Research Unit.
- Pollak, R.A., 1990.
"Welfare Comparisons And Situations Comparisons,"
90-11, University of Washington, Department of Economics.
- Pollak, R.A., 1990. "Welfare Comparisons And Situations Comparisons," Discussion Papers in Economics at the University of Washington 90-11, Department of Economics at the University of Washington.
- Gustafsson, Bjorn & Kjulin, Urban, 1994. "Time Use in Child Care and Housework and the Total Cost of Children," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 7(3), pages 287-306, July.
- Reuben Gronau, 1974.
"The Effect of Children on the Housewife's Value of Time,"
in: Economics of the Family: Marriage, Children, and Human Capital, pages 457-490
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Gronau, Reuben, 1973. "The Effect of Children on the Housewife's Value of Time," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(2), pages S168-99, Part II, .
- Keen, Michael, 1986. "Zero Expenditures and the Estimation of Engel Curves," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 1(3), pages 277-86, July.
- Tansel, AysIt & Bircan, Fatma, 2006. "Demand for education in Turkey: A tobit analysis of private tutoring expenditures," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 303-313, June.
- Lanjouw, Peter & Ravallion, Martin, 1995.
"Poverty and Household Size,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 105(433), pages 1415-34, November.
- Browning, Martin, 1992. "Children and Household Economic Behavior," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(3), pages 1434-75, September.
- Tsakloglou, Panos, 1991. "Estimation and Comparison of Two Simple Models of Equivalence Scales for the Cost of Children," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(405), pages 343-57, March.
- James Banks & Richard Blundell & Arthur Lewbel, 1997. "Quadratic Engel Curves And Consumer Demand," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(4), pages 527-539, November.
- Edward C. Norton & Hua Wang & Chunrong Ai, 2004. "Computing interaction effects and standard errors in logit and probit models," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 4(2), pages 154-167, June.
- Bruce Bradbury, 2004. "Using Time-Use Data to Estimate the Full Costs of Children," Labor and Demography 0411002, EconWPA.
- Ingrid Woolard & Murray Leibbrandt, 1999. "Measuring Poverty in South Africa," Working Papers 99033, University of Cape Town, Development Policy Research Unit.
- repec:cup:cbooks:9780521012263 is not listed on IDEAS
- Paul L. Cichello & Gary S. Fields & Murray Leibbrandt, 2005.
"Earnings and Employment Dynamics for Africans in Post-apartheid South Africa: A Panel Study of KwaZulu-Natal
1," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 14(2), pages 143-190, June.
- Nelson, Julie A, 1993. "Household Equivalence Scales: Theory versus Policy?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 11(3), pages 471-93, July.
- Malcolm Keswell & Laura Poswell, 2004. "Returns To Education In South Africa: A Retrospective Sensitivity Analysis Of The Available Evidence," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 72(4), pages 834-860, 09.
- Peter Burton & Shelley Phipps, 2007. "Families, Time And Money In Canada, Germany, Sweden, The United Kingdom And The United States," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 53(3), pages 460-483, 09.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:csa:wpaper:2008-15. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Richard Payne)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.