Some Child Cost Estimates for South Africa
The heterogeneous demographic composition of South African households means that the way that household income or expenditure is converted into an individual-level welfare measure is likely to matter. This paper examines the monetary and time costs of the most common economic dependents in households: children. The monetary costs of children are estimated at about half those of an adult. Time costs are substantial, and borne almost exclusively by women. Estimates that incorporate time costs suggest that children’s “full costs” are about twice monetary costs alone; with household resources fixed, the average, combined expenditure and time impact of children is very similar to adding an equivalent number of adults.
|Date of creation:||2008|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Manor Road, Oxford, OX1 3UQ|
Phone: +44-(0)1865 271084
Fax: +44-(0)1865 281447
Web page: http://www.csae.ox.ac.uk/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Yatchew,Adonis, 2003.
"Semiparametric Regression for the Applied Econometrician,"
Cambridge University Press, number 9780521012263, December.
- Yatchew,Adonis, 2003. "Semiparametric Regression for the Applied Econometrician," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521812832, December.
- Anne H. Gauthier & Timothy M. Smeeding & Frank F. Furstenberg, 2004. "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 30(4), pages 647-672.
- Keen, Michael, 1986. "Zero Expenditures and the Estimation of Engel Curves," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 1(3), pages 277-86, July.
- Bruce Bradbury, 2004. "Using Time-Use Data to Estimate the Full Costs of Children," Labor and Demography 0411002, EconWPA.
- Gustafsson, Bjorn & Kjulin, Urban, 1994. "Time Use in Child Care and Housework and the Total Cost of Children," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 7(3), pages 287-306, July.
- Van Hoa, Tran & Ironmonger, D. S., 1989. "Equivalence scales : A household production approach," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 407-410, December.
- Apps, Patricia & Rees, Ray, 2000.
"Household Production, Full Consumption and the Costs of Children,"
IZA Discussion Papers
157, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Apps, Patricia & Rees, Ray, 2001. "Household production, full consumption and the costs of children," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(6), pages 621-648, December.
- Pollak, R.A., 1990.
"Welfare Comparisons And Situations Comparisons,"
Discussion Papers in Economics at the University of Washington
90-11, Department of Economics at the University of Washington.
- Gary S. Becker, 1960. "An Economic Analysis of Fertility," NBER Chapters, in: Demographic and Economic Change in Developed Countries, pages 209-240 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Tsakloglou, Panos, 1991. "Estimation and Comparison of Two Simple Models of Equivalence Scales for the Cost of Children," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(405), pages 343-57, March.
- Tansel, AysIt & Bircan, Fatma, 2006. "Demand for education in Turkey: A tobit analysis of private tutoring expenditures," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 303-313, June.
- Peter Burton & Shelley Phipps, 2007. "Families, Time And Money In Canada, Germany, Sweden, The United Kingdom And The United States," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 53(3), pages 460-483, 09.
- Ingrid Woolard & Murray Leibbrandt, 1999. "Measuring Poverty in South Africa," Working Papers 99033, University of Cape Town, Development Policy Research Unit.
- Gronau, Reuben, 1973.
"The Effect of Children on the Housewife's Value of Time,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(2), pages S168-99, Part II, .
- Reuben Gronau, 1974. "The Effect of Children on the Housewife's Value of Time," NBER Chapters, in: Economics of the Family: Marriage, Children, and Human Capital, pages 457-490 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Nelson, Julie A, 1993. "Household Equivalence Scales: Theory versus Policy?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 11(3), pages 471-93, July.
- Lanjouw, Peter & Ravallion, Martin & DEC, 1994.
"Poverty and household size,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
1332, The World Bank.
- Ingrid Woolard & Stephan Klasen, 2005.
"Determinants of Income Mobility and Household Poverty Dynamics in South Africa,"
Journal of Development Studies,
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(5), pages 865-897.
- Woolard, Ingrid & Klasen, Stephan, 2004. "Determinants of Income Mobility and Household Poverty Dynamics in South Africa," IZA Discussion Papers 1030, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Edward C. Norton & Hua Wang & Chunrong Ai, 2004. "Computing interaction effects and standard errors in logit and probit models," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 4(2), pages 154-167, June.
- Browning, Martin, 1992. "Children and Household Economic Behavior," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(3), pages 1434-75, September.
- Malcolm Keswell & Laura Poswell, 2004. "Returns To Education In South Africa: A Retrospective Sensitivity Analysis Of The Available Evidence," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 72(4), pages 834-860, 09.
- Paul Cichello & Gary Fields & Murray Leibbrandt, 2003. "Earnings and Employment Dynamics for Africans in Post-apartheid South Africa: A Panel Study of KwaZulu-Natal," Working Papers 03077, University of Cape Town, Development Policy Research Unit.
- James Banks & Richard Blundell & Arthur Lewbel, 1997. "Quadratic Engel Curves And Consumer Demand," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(4), pages 527-539, November.
- Paul L. Cichello & Gary S. Fields & Murray Leibbrandt, 2005.
"Earnings and Employment Dynamics for Africans in Post-apartheid South Africa: A Panel Study of KwaZulu-Natal
1," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 14(2), pages 143-190, June.
- Martin Wittenberg, 2005. "The school day in South Africa," SALDRU/CSSR Working Papers 113, Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town.
- Ai, Chunrong & Norton, Edward C., 2003. "Interaction terms in logit and probit models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 123-129, July.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:csa:wpaper:2008-15. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Richard Payne)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.