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How Much Market Access in FTAs? Textiles Under NAFTA


  • Cadot, Olivier
  • Carrère, Céline
  • de Melo, Jaime
  • Portugal-Pérez, Alberto


This paper estimates the effective market access granted under NAFTA in textiles and apparel by combining two approaches. First, we estimate the effect of tariff preferences and rules of origin on the border prices of Mexican final goods exported to the US and of US intermediates exported to Mexico. We find that one third of the estimated rise in the border price of Mexican apparel products compensates for the cost of complying with NAFTA’s rules of origin. We also find that the price of US intermediates exported to Mexico is raised significantly by the presence of rules of origin downstream. Second, simulations from a structural model inspired by our econometric estimates, suggest little market access improvement for Mexican exporters.

Suggested Citation

  • Cadot, Olivier & Carrère, Céline & de Melo, Jaime & Portugal-Pérez, Alberto, 2005. "How Much Market Access in FTAs? Textiles Under NAFTA," CEPR Discussion Papers 5264, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:5264

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. José Anson & Olivier Cadot & Antoni Estevadeordal & Jaime de Melo & Akiko Suwa-Eisenmann & Bolormaa Tumurchudur, 2005. "Rules of Origin in North-South Preferential Trading Arrangements with an Application to NAFTA," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(3), pages 501-517, August.
    2. Feenstra, Robert C., 1989. "Symmetric pass-through of tariffs and exchange rates under imperfect competition: An empirical test," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1-2), pages 25-45, August.
    3. Paul Brenton & Miriam Manchin, 2003. "Making EU Trade Agreements Work: The Role of Rules of Origin," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(5), pages 755-769, May.
    4. Brenton, Paul, 2003. "Integrating the least developed countries into the world trading system : the current impact of EU preferences under everything but arms," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3018, The World Bank.
    5. Marcelo Olarreaga & Çaglar Özden, 2005. "AGOA and Apparel: Who Captures the Tariff Rent in the Presence of Preferential Market Access?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(1), pages 63-77, January.
    6. Won Chang & L. Alan Winters, 2002. "How Regional Blocs Affect Excluded Countries: The Price Effects of MERCOSUR," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(4), pages 889-904, September.
    7. Kala Krishna, 2005. "Understanding Rules of Origin," NBER Working Papers 11150, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Winters, L Alan, 1997. "Regionalism and the Rest of the World: The Irrelevance of the Kemp-Wan Theorem," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 49(2), pages 228-234, April.
    9. Ozden, Caglar & Sharma, Gunjan, 2004. "Price effects of preferential market access : the Caribbean Basin Initiative and the apparel sector," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3244, The World Bank.
    10. Kee, Hiau Looi & Olarreaga, Marcelo & Silva, Peri, 2007. "Market access for sale," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 79-94, January.
    11. Céline Carrère & Jaime de Melo, 2015. "Are Different Rules of Origin Equally Costly? Estimates from NAFTA," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Developing Countries in the World Economy, chapter 12, pages 277-298 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    12. Dean Spinanger, 1998. "Textiles Beyond the MFA Phase-Out," CSGR Working papers series 13/98, Centre for the Study of Globalisation and Regionalisation (CSGR), University of Warwick.
    13. Bernard Hoekman & Constantine Michalopoulos & L. Alan Winter, 2004. "Special and Differential Treatment of Developing Countries in the WTO: Moving Forward After Cancún," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(4), pages 481-506, April.
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    Cited by:

    1. Cadot, Olivier & Carrere, Celine & De Melo, Jaime & Tumurchudur, Bolormaa, 2006. "Product-specific rules of origin in EU and US preferential trading arrangements: an assessment," World Trade Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 5(02), pages 199-224, July.

    More about this item


    NAFTA; regional integration; rules of origin;

    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration

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