The Intergenerational State: Education and Pensions
When credit markets to finance investment in the human capital of young people are missing, the competitive equilibrium allocation is inefficient. When generations overlap, this failure can be mitigated by properly designed social institutions such as public education and public pensions. We show that, when established jointly, they implement an intergenerational transfer scheme supporting the complete market allocation. Through the public financing of education, the young borrow, from the middle age to invest in human capital. When employed, they pay back their debt via a social security tax, the proceedings of which finance pension payments to the now elderly lenders. We consider other, allocationally equivalent, financing schemes. In all cases, when the complete market allocation is achieved a certain equality should be observed among implicit rates of return and the market rate of return. We test this prediction by using micro and macro data from Spain. The results are, surprisingly, good. We also use the model to quantify the impact of undergoing demographic change on the implicit rates of return. The results point, unsurprisingly, to dramatic changes in generational rates of return. Contrary to what predicted by earlier studies in the generational accounting tradition, our findings suggest that future generations are not necessarily going to be worse than current ones.
|Date of creation:||Mar 2002|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: 44 - 20 - 7183 8801
Fax: 44 - 20 - 7183 8820
|Order Information:|| Email: |
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Laurence J. Kotlikoff & Torsten Persson & Lars E.O. Svensson, 1986. "Laws as Assets: A Possible Solution to the Time Consistency Problem," NBER Working Papers 2068, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kotlikoff, Laurence J & Spivak, Avia, 1981.
"The Family as an Incomplete Annuities Market,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 89(2), pages 372-91, April.
- Laurence J. Kotlikoff & Avia Spivak, 1979. "The Family as an Incomplete Annuities Market," UCLA Economics Working Papers 151, UCLA Department of Economics.
- Laurence J. Kotlikoff & Avia Spivak, 1979. "The Family as an Incomplete Annuities Market," NBER Working Papers 0362, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Alan J. Auerbach & Laurence J. Kotlikoff & Willi Leibfritz, 1999. "Generational Accounting around the World," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number auer99-1, June.
- Robert J. Barro & Gary S. Becker, .
"Fertility Choice in a Model of Economic Growth,"
University of Chicago - Population Research Center
88-8, Chicago - Population Research Center.
- Cremer, H. & Kessler, D. & Pestieau, P., 1989.
"Intergenerational Transfers Within The Family,"
CORE Discussion Papers
1989018, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Robert C. Merton, 1981. "On the Role of Social Security as a Means for Efficient Risk-Bearing in an Economy Where Human Capital Is Not Tradeable," NBER Working Papers 0743, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Gary S. Becker & Kevin M. Murphy, .
"The Family and the State,"
University of Chicago - Population Research Center
87-15, Chicago - Population Research Center.
- Neher, Philip A, 1971. "Peasants, Procreation, and Pensions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 61(3), pages 380-89, June.
- Antonio Rangel, 2000.
"Forward and Backward Intergenerational Goods: A Theory of Intergenerational Exchange,"
NBER Working Papers
7518, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Antonio Rangel, 1999. "Forward and Backward Intergenerational Goods: A Theory of Intergenerational Exchange," Working Papers 00001, Stanford University, Department of Economics.
- Kotlikoff, Laurence J & Persson, Torsten & Svensson, Lars E O, 1988. "Social Contracts as Assets: A Possible Solution to the Time-Consistency Problem," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(4), pages 662-77, September.
- repec:wop:bodewp:218 is not listed on IDEAS
- Cass, David, 1972. "Distinguishing inefficient competitive growth paths: A note on capital overaccumulation and rapidly diminishing future value of consumption in a fairly general model of capitalistic production," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 224-240, April.
- Kehoe, Timothy J & Levine, David K, 2001. "Liquidity Constrained Markets versus Debt Constrained Markets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(3), pages 575-98, May.
- Giorgio Bellettini & Carlotta Berti Ceroni, 1999.
"Is Social Security Really Bad for Growth?,"
Review of Economic Dynamics,
Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 2(4), pages 796-819, October.
- Michele Boldrin, 1992.
"Public Education and Capital Accumulation,"
1017, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
- Michele Boldrin & Larry E. Jones, 2002. "Mortality, Fertility, and Saving in a Malthusian Economy," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 5(4), pages 775-814, October.
- Ana Montes, 2002. "Educación para los jóvenes y pensiones para los mayores: ¿Existe alguna relación? Evidencia para España," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 26(1), pages 145-185, January.
- Michele Boldrin & Aldo Rustichini, 2000. "Political Equilibria with Social Security," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 3(1), pages 41-78, January.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:3275. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.