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Microeconomic Reform and Income Distribution: The case of Australian Ports and Rail Freight Industries


  • George Verikios
  • Xiao-guang Zhang


We analyse structural changes in the Australian ports and rail freight industries during 1990s that were driven by microeconomic reform. We estimate the direct and indirect effects on household income groups of these industry changes by applying a computable general equilibrium model incorporating detailed household income and expenditure accounts, and microsimulation behaviour. The model contains both top-down and bottom-up linkages. The structural changes lead to a small increase in household welfare in most regions, with an overall increase of 0.18%. Income inequality is estimated to have decreased slightly by 0.02%.

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  • George Verikios & Xiao-guang Zhang, 2012. "Microeconomic Reform and Income Distribution: The case of Australian Ports and Rail Freight Industries," Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre Working Papers g-230, Victoria University, Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre.
  • Handle: RePEc:cop:wpaper:g-230

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Arntz, Melanie & Boeters, Stefan & Gürtzgen, Nicole & Schubert, Stefanie, 2008. "Analysing welfare reform in a microsimulation-AGE model: The value of disaggregation," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 422-439, May.
    2. Rolf Aaberge & Ugo Colombino, 2014. "Labour Supply Models," Contributions to Economic Analysis,in: Handbook of Microsimulation Modelling, volume 127, pages 167-221 Emerald Publishing Ltd.
    3. G. A. Meagher & Nisha Agrawal, 1986. "Taxation Reform and Income Distribution in Australia," Australian Economic Review, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, vol. 19(3), pages 33-56.
    4. Meagher, G A & Dixon, Peter B, 1986. "Analyzing Income Distribution in Australia," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 62(179), pages 427-441, December.
    5. DeVuyst, Eric A. & Preckel, Paul V., 1997. "Sensitivity analysis revisited: A quadrature-based approach," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 175-185, April.
    6. Richard B. Freeman & Lawrence F. Katz, 1995. "Differences and Changes in Wage Structures," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number free95-1, January.
    7. Guyonne Kalb, 1998. "An Australian Model for Labour Supply and Welfare Participation in Two-Adult Households," Discussion Papers 0082, University of New South Wales, Social Policy Research Centre.
    8. David G. Blanchflower & Andrew Oswald, 1995. "International Wage Curves," NBER Chapters,in: Differences and Changes in Wage Structures, pages 145-174 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. Maheshwar Rao & Robert Tanton & Yogi Vidyattama, 2013. "‘A Systems Approach to Analyse the Impacts of Water Policy Reform in the Murray-Darling Basin: a conceptual and an analytical framework’," NATSEM Working Paper Series 13/22, University of Canberra, National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling.

    More about this item


    computable general equilibrium; household income distribution; microeconomic reform; microsimulation; ports; rail freight;

    JEL classification:

    • C68 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Computable General Equilibrium Models
    • C69 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Other
    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • L92 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Railroads and Other Surface Transportation

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