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Desequilibrios regionales en la política de descentralización en Colombia

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  • Jaime Bonet

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Abstract

El propósito principal de este documento es presentar una serie de recomendaciones de política que permitan consolidar a la descentralización como una estrategia de desarrollo regional. La evidencia muestra que la descentralización ha perpetuado las disparidades que en materia de cobertura en educación y salud existen en Colombia. Se encuentra, además, una gran desigualdad en los ingresos fiscales per cápita de los entes territoriales, lo cual implica que éstos asumen la responsabilidad de prestación de servicios en condiciones muy diferentes. Gran parte de esta inequidad en el ingreso se origina en la diferencia observada en los ingresos tributarios, la cual, contrario a lo que se esperaría en un programa de equidad fiscal horizontal, no es corregida por el sistema de transferencias vigente. El escaso vínculo existente entre los recaudos y las decisiones de gasto impiden que se realicen los aumentos en eficiencia que se esperan de una estrategia de descentralización. Las recomendaciones de política están focalizadas en tres aspectos: involucrar una mayor equidad en el sistema de transferencias del gobierno nacional a los subnacionales, fortalecer el aparato tributario subnacional y establecer unos incentivos claros para mejorar la eficiencia del gasto.

Suggested Citation

  • Jaime Bonet, 2006. "Desequilibrios regionales en la política de descentralización en Colombia," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO SOBRE ECONOMÍA REGIONAL Y URBANA 002293, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA - ECONOMÍA REGIONAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:col:000102:002293
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Olga Lucia Acosta & Richard M. Bird, 2003. "The Dilemma of Decentralization in Colombia," International Tax Program Papers 0404, International Tax Program, Institute for International Business, Joseph L. Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto.
    2. Jaime Bonet, 2006. "Fiscal decentralization and regional income disparities: evidence from the Colombian experience," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 40(3), pages 661-676, August.
    3. Cadena Ximena, 2002. "¿La descentralización empereza? Efecto de las transferencias sobre los ingresos tributarios municipales en Colombia," REVISTA DESARROLLO Y SOCIEDAD, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE, September.
    4. Anwar Shah, 1996. "A Fiscal Need Approach to Equalization," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 22(2), pages 99-115, June.
    5. Juan José Echavarría Soto & Carolina Rentería & Roberto Steiner, 2000. "Decentralization and Bailouts in Colombia," INFORMES DE INVESTIGACIÓN 002252, FEDESARROLLO.
    6. Roberto Junguito & Ligia Melo & Martha Misas, 1995. "La Descentralización Fiscal y la Política Macroeconómica," Borradores de Economia 031, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    7. Anwar Shah, 2014. "Fiscal federalism and macroeconomic governance : for better or for worse?," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 15(1), pages 200-240, May.
    8. Juan David Barón R. & Adolfo Meisel R., 2003. "La descentralización y las disparidades económicas regionales en Colombia en la década de 1990," COYUNTURA ECONÓMICA, FEDESARROLLO, September.
    9. Ana María Iregui & Jorge Ramos & Luz Amparo Saavedra, 2001. "Análisis de la Descentralización Fiscal en Colombia," Borradores de Economia 175, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    10. Fabio Sánchez Torres & Michael Smart & Juan Gonzalo Zapata Giraldo, 2002. "Intergovernmental transfers and municipal finance in Colombia," INFORMES DE INVESTIGACIÓN 002915, FEDESARROLLO.
    11. Juan Camilo Chaparro & Michael Smart & Juan Gonzola Zapata, 2004. "Intergovernmental Transfers and Municipal Finance in Colombia," International Tax Program Papers 0403, International Tax Program, Institute for International Business, Joseph L. Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto.
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    Cited by:

    1. Jaime Bonet-Morón & Jhorland Ayala-García, 2016. "La brecha fiscal territorial en Colombia," Documentos de trabajo sobre Economía Regional y Urbana 235, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    2. World Bank, 2009. "Colombia - Decentralization : Options and Incentives for Efficiency - Sector Annexes," World Bank Other Operational Studies 3097, The World Bank.
    3. Edilberto Rodríguez Araújo, 2014. "Los cuadrantes del desempeño regional en Colombia (2000-2012)," REVISTA APUNTES DEL CENES, UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICA Y TECNOLOGICA DE COLOMBIA, June.
    4. Ignacio Lozano-Espitia & Juan Manuel Julio-Román, 2015. "Descentralización Fiscal y Crecimiento Económico: Evidencia Regional en Panel de Datos para Colombia," Borradores de Economia 865, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    5. Laura Ardila Rueda, 2004. "Gasto Publico Y Convergencia Regional En Colombia," ENSAYOS SOBRE POLÍTICA ECONÓMICA, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA - ESPE, vol. 22(45), pages 222-268, June.
    6. World Bank, 2009. "Colombia - Decentralization : Options and Incentives for Efficiency - Main Report," World Bank Other Operational Studies 3096, The World Bank.
    7. Richard M. Bird, 2012. "Fiscal Decentralization in Colombia: A Work (Still) in Progress," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper1223, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
    8. Bonet, Jaime & Meisel, Adolfo, 2009. "Regional economic disparities in Colombia," INVESTIGACIONES REGIONALES - Journal of REGIONAL RESEARCH, Asociación Española de Ciencia Regional, issue 14, pages 61-80.
    9. Luis Fernando Ramírez Hernández & Manuel Beltrán Garzón, 2009. "Justificación económica de la descentralización: un análisis desde las finanzas regionales," REVISTA EQUIDAD Y DESARROLLO, UNIVERSIDAD DE LA SALLE, August.
    10. Luis Ignacio Lozano-Espitia & Juan Manuel Julio-Román, 2015. "Fiscal Decentralization and Economic Growth: Evidence from Regional-Level Panel Data for Colombia," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 012498, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Descentralización; desequilibrios; regiones; ingresos; gastos;

    JEL classification:

    • H73 - Public Economics - - State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations - - - Interjurisdictional Differentials and Their Effects
    • H77 - Public Economics - - State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations - - - Intergovernmental Relations; Federalism
    • R51 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Regional Government Analysis - - - Finance in Urban and Rural Economies
    • R58 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Regional Government Analysis - - - Regional Development Planning and Policy

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