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Desequilibrios regionales en la política de descentralización en Colombia

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  • Jaime Bonet

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Abstract

El propósito principal de este documento es presentar una serie de recomendaciones de política que permitan consolidar a la descentralización como una estrategia de desarrollo regional. La evidencia muestra que la descentralización ha perpetuado las disparidades que en materia de cobertura en educación y salud existen en Colombia. Se encuentra, además, una gran desigualdad en los ingresos fiscales per cápita de los entes territoriales, lo cual implica que éstos asumen la responsabilidad de prestación de servicios en condiciones muy diferentes. Gran parte de esta inequidad en el ingreso se origina en la diferencia observada en los ingresos tributarios, la cual, contrario a lo que se esperaría en un programa de equidad fiscal horizontal, no es corregida por el sistema de transferencias vigente. El escaso vínculo existente entre los recaudos y las decisiones de gasto impiden que se realicen los aumentos en eficiencia que se esperan de una estrategia de descentralización. Las recomendaciones de política están focalizadas en tres aspectos: involucrar una mayor equidad en el sistema de transferencias del gobierno nacional a los subnacionales, fortalecer el aparato tributario subnacional y establecer unos incentivos claros para mejorar la eficiencia del gasto.

Suggested Citation

  • Jaime Bonet, 2006. "Desequilibrios regionales en la política de descentralización en Colombia," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO SOBRE ECONOMÍA REGIONAL Y URBANA 002293, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA - ECONOMÍA REGIONAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:col:000102:002293
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    2. Jaime Bonet, 2006. "Fiscal decentralization and regional income disparities: evidence from the Colombian experience," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, pages 661-676.
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    Cited by:

    1. María Aguilera & Ali Miguel Arrieta & Andrés Fernando Carreño & Camila Uribe, 2015. "Caracterización del comercio en Cartagena y Bolívar, 2000-2014," Documentos de trabajo sobre Economía Regional y Urbana 229, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    2. World Bank, 2009. "Colombia - Decentralization : Options and Incentives for Efficiency - Sector Annexes," World Bank Other Operational Studies 3097, The World Bank.
    3. Edilberto Rodríguez Araújo, 2014. "Los cuadrantes del desempeño regional en Colombia (2000-2012)," REVISTA APUNTES DEL CENES, UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICA Y TECNOLOGICA DE COLOMBIA, June.
    4. Jaime Bonet-Morón & Jhorland Ayala-García, 2016. "La brecha fiscal territorial en Colombia," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO SOBRE ECONOMÍA REGIONAL Y URBANA 014561, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA - ECONOMÍA REGIONAL.
    5. Juliana Ávila Vélez & Álvaro José Pinzón Giraldo, 2015. "¿Están sincronizados los ciclos económicos en Latinoamérica?," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 012438, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
    6. Laura Ardila Rueda, 2004. "Gasto Publico Y Convergencia Regional En Colombia," ENSAYOS SOBRE POLÍTICA ECONÓMICA, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA - ESPE, vol. 22(45), pages 222-268, June.
    7. World Bank, 2009. "Colombia - Decentralization : Options and Incentives for Efficiency - Main Report," World Bank Other Operational Studies 3096, The World Bank.
    8. Richard M. Bird, 2012. "Fiscal Decentralization in Colombia: A Work (Still) in Progress," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper1223, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
    9. Bonet, Jaime & Meisel, Adolfo, 2009. "Regional economic disparities in Colombia," INVESTIGACIONES REGIONALES - Journal of REGIONAL RESEARCH, Asociación Española de Ciencia Regional, issue 14, pages 61-80.
    10. Luis Fernando Ramírez Hernández & Manuel Beltrán Garzón, 2009. "Justificación económica de la descentralización: un análisis desde las finanzas regionales," REVISTA EQUIDAD Y DESARROLLO, UNIVERSIDAD DE LA SALLE.
    11. Leonardo Fabio Morales & Daniel Medina, 2016. "Labor Fluidity and Performance of Labor Outcomes in Colombia: Evidence from Employer-Employee Linked Panel," Borradores de Economia 926, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    12. Luis Ignacio Lozano-Espitia & Juan Manuel Julio-Román, 2015. "Fiscal Decentralization and Economic Growth: Evidence from Regional-Level Panel Data for Colombia," Borradores de Economia 865i, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    13. Ana María Iregui-Bohórquez & Ligia Alba Melo-Becerra & María Teresa Ramírez-Giraldo, 2015. "Estado de salud y participación laboral: Evidencia para Colombia," Borradores de Economia 851, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Descentralización; desequilibrios; regiones; ingresos; gastos;

    JEL classification:

    • H73 - Public Economics - - State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations - - - Interjurisdictional Differentials and Their Effects
    • H77 - Public Economics - - State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations - - - Intergovernmental Relations; Federalism
    • R51 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Regional Government Analysis - - - Finance in Urban and Rural Economies
    • R58 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Regional Government Analysis - - - Regional Development Planning and Policy

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