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Export Dynamics in Colombia: Transactions Level Evidence

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  • Jonathan Eaton

    ()

  • Marcela Eslava

    ()

  • Maurice Kugler

    ()

  • James Tybout

    ()

Abstract

We examine Colombian export transaction data from customs records in several dimensions. We begin with some basic statistics on the number and frequency of export transactions by a firm, overall and across individual markets. We then decompose the variation in overall exports into the number of transactions and the size of the average transaction, both at the aggregate level and for individual firms to explore gravity equations, where the patterns of exports and numbers of transactions are related to the distance with respect to the destination. The analysis is carried out both at the aggregate and the firm level. Then we explore the relationship between patterns of transactions numbers and shipment modes. Our results show great heterogeneity in the patterns of frequency and number of transactions across firms; the average firm sent about 75 shipments abroad in 2005, while the firm with largest number of transactions that same year dispatched more than 26,000 shipments. Moreover, while close to 35% of firms in the sample report a single export transaction over the period, for most firms with multiple transactions the average span between two transactions is less than a month. Part of this heterogeneity is shown to be related to the distance with respect to the destination market: firms exporting to more distant destinations make less frequent shipments than firms exporting to markets that are closer. This suggests that there are fixed costs per shipment inducing declining marginal cost of higher shipment volume. These patterns imply that, at the aggregate level, transactions numbers are the primary source of variation in exports. The variability in the numbers of transactions also explains an important part of the well-known negative relationship between aggregate exports and distance to a specific destination.

Suggested Citation

  • Jonathan Eaton & Marcela Eslava & Maurice Kugler & James Tybout, 2008. "Export Dynamics in Colombia: Transactions Level Evidence," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 004748, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  • Handle: RePEc:col:000094:004748
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Cebeci, Tolga & Fernandes, Ana M. & Freund, Caroline & Pierola, Martha Denisse, 2012. "Exporter dynamics database," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6229, The World Bank.
    2. Marco Fugazza & Alain McLaren, 2014. "Market Access, Export Performance and Survival: Evidence from Peruvian Firms," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, pages 599-624.
    3. Joze P. Damijan & Crt Kostevc, 2011. "Firms’ Patterns of Trade and Access to Finance," Chapters,in: Post-Crisis Growth and Integration in Europe, chapter 19 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    4. Wagner, Rodrigo & Zahler, Andrés, 2015. "New exports from emerging markets: Do followers benefit from pioneers?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, pages 203-223.
    5. Tolga Cebeci & Ana M. Fernandes, 2015. "Microdynamics of Turkey's Export Boom in the 2000s," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(5), pages 825-855, May.
    6. Fernandes, Ana M. & Freund, Caroline & Pierola, Martha Denisse, 2016. "Exporter behavior, country size and stage of development: Evidence from the exporter dynamics database," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, pages 121-137.
    7. David Kohn & Fernando Leibovici & Michal Szkup, 2016. "Financial Frictions And New Exporter Dynamics," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 57, pages 453-486, May.
    8. Macchiavello, Rocco, 2010. "Development Uncorked: Reputation Acquisition in the New Market for Chilean Wines in the UK," CEPR Discussion Papers 7698, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    9. Markus K. Brunnermeier & Yuliy Sannikov, 2014. "A Macroeconomic Model with a Financial Sector," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, pages 379-421.
    10. Hayakawa, Kazunobu & Laksanapanyakul, Nuttawut & Yoshimi, Taiyo, 2016. "Effect of import time on export patterns," IDE Discussion Papers 566, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    11. Jože P. Damijan & Črt Kostevc & Sašo Polanec, 2011. "Export Strategies of New Exporters: Why is Export Expansion Along the Extensive Margins so Sluggish?," LICOS Discussion Papers 27711, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
    12. Michal Szkup & Fernando Leibovici & David Kohn, 2011. "Financial Frictions and Export Dynamics," 2011 Meeting Papers 1014, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    13. Straume, Hans-Martin, 2015. "Trade costs and Norwegian salmon export," Working Papers in Economics 06/15, University of Bergen, Department of Economics.
    14. Sandra Poncet & Felipe Starosta de Waldemar, 2012. "Product relatedness and firm exports in China," Working Papers 2012-27, CEPII research center.
    15. Sandra Poncet & Felipe Starosta de Waldemar, 2015. "Product Relatedness and Firm Exports in China," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, pages 579-605.
    16. Freund, Caroline & Pierola, Martha Denisse, 2012. "Export surges," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, pages 387-395.
    17. Molina, Danielken & Roa, Monica, 2014. "The Effect of Credit on the Export Performance of Colombian Exporters," MPRA Paper 56137, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Molina, Danielken & Roa, Monica, 2014. "The Effect of Credit on the Export Performance of Colombian Exporters," MPRA Paper 56137, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Andrea Ariu, 2012. "Services versus goods trade: Are they the same?," Working Paper Research 237, National Bank of Belgium.
    20. Andrea ARIU, 2013. "Services versus Goods Trade: Are They the Same?," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 2013015, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
    21. Fernandes, Ana M. & Lederman, Daniel & Gutierrez-Rocha, Mario, 2013. "Export entrepreneurship and trade structure in Latin America during good and bad times," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6413, The World Bank.
    22. Straume, Hans-Martin & Asche, Frank, 2015. "Duration and temporary trade," Working Papers in Economics 04/15, University of Bergen, Department of Economics.
    23. Fernandes, Ana M. & Freund, Caroline & Pierola, Martha Denisse, 2016. "Exporter behavior, country size and stage of development: Evidence from the exporter dynamics database," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, pages 121-137.
    24. Juan A. Máñez & María E. Rochina-Barrachina & Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis & Oscar Vicente, 2013. "Financial constraints and Spanish manufacturing firms’ R&D and exporting," Working Papers 1324, Department of Applied Economics II, Universidad de Valencia.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Export transaction frequency; fixed shipment costs and scale economies in transportation; destination distance; average shipment volume and number of shipments.;

    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F12 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies; Fragmentation
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade

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