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Was it worth it? An empirical analysis of over-education among Ph.D. recipients in Italy

  • Giuseppe Lucio Gaeta

    ()

    (University of Naples L’Orientale, Department of Social Sciences and Humanities)

This paper aims to provide an empirical examination of factors associated with overeducation among Ph.D. graduates in Italy. Our investigation is based on recently released data collected by the Italian National Institute of Statistics by means of interviews with a large sample of Ph.D. recipients, carried out a few years after they obtained their Ph.D. degree. We measured the mismatch between their current job and previous Ph.D. studies using two direct subjective evaluations of over-education, which distinguish between the usefulness of the Ph.D. title to get the current job position and to perform the current work activities. Even if the incidence of over-education varies according to the measurement applied, we found that it is highly widespread among Ph.D. recipients. Our econometric analyses are aimed at identifying factors associated with over-education and are based on the standard probit model and the bivariate probit model with sample selection which allows to control for self selection into employment. Our results show that over-education is significantly correlated with: i) a number of Ph-D. related variables, such as the scientific field of study, having attended courses or visiting periods abroad; ii) some job-related characteristics, such as working in the academia or being mainly involved in research related activities; iii) the channel of access to the job; iv) residential location. This paper contributes to the literature focusing on job-education mismatch by providing, to the best of our knowledge, the first empirical analysis of over-education among Ph.D. recipients in Italy; moreover, it provides some useful insights to evaluate the professional doctoral graduates in Italy.

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File URL: http://193.205.129.80/repec/cme/wpaper/cmetwp_02_2013.pdf
File Function: First version, 2013
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Paper provided by c.MET-05 - Centro Interuniversitario di Economia Applicata alle Politiche per L'industria, lo Sviluppo locale e l'Internazionalizzazione in its series Working Papers with number 1302.

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Length: 18 pages
Date of creation: Sep 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:cme:wpaper:1302
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.cmet05.it

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  1. Croce, Giuseppe & Ghignoni, Emanuela, 2011. "Overeducation and spatial flexibility in Italian local labour markets," MPRA Paper 29670, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
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  4. Di Pietro, Giorgio & Peter Urwin, 2003. "Education and Skills Mismatch in the Italian Graduate Labour Market," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2003 59, Royal Economic Society.
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  7. Floro Ernesto Caroleo & Francesco Pastore, 2012. "Overeducation at a glance. Determinants and wage effects of the educational mismatch, looking at the AlmaLaurea data," Discussion Papers 18_2012, CRISEI, University of Naples "Parthenope", Italy.
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  12. Keith A. Bender & John S. Heywood, 2009. "Educational Mismatch among Ph.D.s: Determinants and Consequences," NBER Chapters, in: Science and Engineering Careers in the United States: An Analysis of Markets and Employment, pages 229-255 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Tsang, Mun Chiu, 1987. "The impact of underutilization of education on productivity: A case study of the U.S. Bell companies," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 239-254, June.
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  15. Dieter Verhaest & Eddy Omey, 2010. "The determinants of overeducation: different measures, different outcomes?," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 31(6), pages 608-625, September.
  16. Hartog, Joop, 2000. "Over-education and earnings: where are we, where should we go?," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 131-147, April.
  17. Ramos, Raul & Sanromá, Esteban, 2011. "Overeducation and Local Labour Markets in Spain," IZA Discussion Papers 6028, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  18. Duncan, Greg J. & Hoffman, Saul D., 1981. "The incidence and wage effects of overeducation," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 75-86, February.
  19. Richard R. Verdugo & Naomi Turner Verdugo, 1989. "The Impact of Surplus Schooling on Earnings: Some Additional Findings," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 24(4), pages 629-643.
  20. Sattinger, Michael, 1993. "Assignment Models of the Distribution of Earnings," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 31(2), pages 831-80, June.
  21. Antonio Di Paolo, 2012. "(Endogenous) occupational choices and job satisfaction among recent PhD recipients: evidence from Catalonia," Working Papers XREAP2012-21, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised Dec 2012.
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