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The Development of EU and EU Member States' External Competitiveness


  • Angela Cheptea
  • Charlotte Emlinger
  • Lionel Fontagné
  • Gianluca Orefice
  • Olga Pindyuk


We revisit competitiveness issues using recent data and show that the global financial crisis has taken a toll on European producers that before 2007 were maintaining their market positions. The EU competitiveness in goods has recently deteriorated, even in the upper and high-tech segments of the world market. The decline recorded by European exporters is attributable purely to performance and not to adverse orientation of their exports. However, European exports are predominantly "Made in Europe" and include an increasing share of services. The within Europe advantages in manufacturing seem to have been exhausted and further gains imply moves outside the EU with an enhanced focus on the competitiveness in services as an important determinant of future European industry.

Suggested Citation

  • Angela Cheptea & Charlotte Emlinger & Lionel Fontagné & Gianluca Orefice & Olga Pindyuk, 2014. "The Development of EU and EU Member States' External Competitiveness," Working Papers 2014-06, CEPII research center.
  • Handle: RePEc:cii:cepidt:2014-06

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hallak, Juan Carlos, 2006. "Product quality and the direction of trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 238-265, January.
    2. Gaulier, Guillaume & Zignago, Soledad, 2004. "Notes on BACI (analytical database of international trade). 1989-2002 version," MPRA Paper 32401, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Amit Khandelwal, 2010. "The Long and Short (of) Quality Ladders," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 77(4), pages 1450-1476.
    4. Juan Carlos Hallak & Peter K. Schott, 2011. "Estimating Cross-Country Differences in Product Quality," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 126(1), pages 417-474.
    5. Louise Curran & Soledad Zignago, 2009. "Evolution of EU and its Member States' Competitiveness in International Trade," Working Papers 2009-11, CEPII research center.
    6. Roy, Martin, 2011. "Services commitments in preferential trade agreements: An expanded dataset," WTO Staff Working Papers ERSD-2011-18, World Trade Organization (WTO), Economic Research and Statistics Division.
    7. Foster-McGregor, Neil & Stehrer, Robert, 2013. "Value added content of trade: A comprehensive approach," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 120(2), pages 354-357.
    8. Hummels, David & Ishii, Jun & Yi, Kei-Mu, 2001. "The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 75-96, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Michael Landesmann & Sandra M. Leitner & Robert Stehrer, 2015. "Competitiveness of the European Economy," wiiw Research Reports 401, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.

    More about this item


    Competitiveness; trade in value added;

    JEL classification:

    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration

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