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Assessing the price-raising effect of non-tariff measures in Africa

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  • Olivier Cadot
  • Julien Gourdon

Abstract

In spite of widespread tariff reductions, intra-African borders remain thick. Regional trade is inhibited by inadequate transportation infrastructure, but also by various government-imposed measures. This paper combines price data from the World Bank’s International Comparison Project (ICP) with the new TRAINS database on non-tariff measures (NTMs) to estimate their effect on consumer prices for selected consumption products. Results based on panel regressions on 1260 country-product pairs suggest that, after controlling for tariffs, systematic cross-country cost-of-living differences, and product-specific unobservables, SPS measures contribute to raise the price of African foodstuffs by 14%. At the product level, rice and other cereals, some types of meat (e.g. poultry), and edible oils tend to fetch high AVEs. Combining our estimates with data on household expenditure patterns from Kenya’s household survey, we show that the effect is regressive, raising the cost of living by 9% for poor households.

Suggested Citation

  • Olivier Cadot & Julien Gourdon, 2012. "Assessing the price-raising effect of non-tariff measures in Africa," Working Papers 2012-16, CEPII research center.
  • Handle: RePEc:cii:cepidt:2012-16
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Hiau LooiKee & Alessandro Nicita & Marcelo Olarreaga, 2009. "Estimating Trade Restrictiveness Indices," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 119(534), pages 172-199, January.
    2. Disdier, Anne-Celia & Fontagne, Lionel & Mimouni, Mondher, 2008. "AJAE Appendix: The Impact of Regulations on Agricultural Trade: Evidence from the SPS and TBT Agreements," American Journal of Agricultural Economics Appendices, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 90(2), May.
    3. Scott Bradford, 2003. "Paying the Price: Final Goods Protection in OECD Countries," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(1), pages 24-37, February.
    4. Andriamananjara, Soamiely & Dean, Judith M. & Feinberg, Robert & Ferrantino, Michael J. & Ludema, Rodney & Tsigas, Marinos E., 2004. "The Effects of Non-Tariff Measures on Prices, Trade, and Welfare: CGE Implementation of Policy-Based Price Comparisons," Working Papers 15863, United States International Trade Commission, Office of Economics.
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    7. Robert E. Baldwin, 1989. "Measuring Nontariff Trade Policies," NBER Working Papers 2978, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Beghin, John C. & Disdier, Anne-Celia & Marette, Stephan & van Tongeren, Frank, 2011. "Measuring Costs And Benefits Of Non-Tariff Measures In Agri-Food Trade," Staff General Research Papers Archive 32393, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    9. Mahbub Morshed, A. K. M., 2003. "What can we learn from a large border effect in developing countries?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(1), pages 353-369, October.
    10. Ihle, Rico & von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan & Zorya, Sergiy, 2010. "Country and border effects in the transmission of maize prices in Eastern Africa: evidence from a semi-parametric regression model," 2010 AAAE Third Conference/AEASA 48th Conference, September 19-23, 2010, Cape Town, South Africa 96184, African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE);Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA).
    11. Michael Ferrantino, 2006. "Quantifying the Trade and Economic Effects of Non-Tariff Measures," OECD Trade Policy Papers 28, OECD Publishing.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Olivier Cadot & Julien Gourdon, 2016. "Non-tariff measures, preferential trade agreements, and prices: new evidence," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 152(2), pages 227-249, May.
    2. Brülhart, Marius, 2014. "More Than Copper: Towards The Diversification And Stabilization Of Zambian Exports," Papers 779, World Trade Institute.
    3. World Bank, 2015. "Kazakhstan Trade Report," World Bank Other Operational Studies 22046, The World Bank.
    4. repec:bla:worlde:v:40:y:2017:i:12:p:2564-2591 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. World Bank, 2016. "Assessing the Impact of WTO Accession on Belarus," World Bank Other Operational Studies 24698, The World Bank.
    6. Olivier Cadot & Julien Gourdon, 2015. "NTMs, Preferential Trade Agreements, and Prices: New evidence," Working Papers 2015-01, CEPII research center.
    7. Beghin, John C. & Disdier, Anne-Celia & Marette, Stephan, 2012. "Trade Restrictiveness Indices in Presence of Externalities: An Application to Non-Tariff Measures," 2012: New Rules of Trade?, December 2012, San Diego, California 142775, International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium.
    8. Beghin, John C. & Disdier, Anne-Celia & Marette, Stephan, 2012. "Trade Restrictiveness Indices in Presence of Externalities: An Application to Non-Tariff Measures," Working Papers 142386, International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium.
    9. Edward J. Balistreri & Zoryana Olekseyuk & David G. Tarr, 2017. "Privatisation and the unusual case of Belarusian accession to the WTO," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(12), pages 2564-2591, December.
    10. Balistreri,Edward Jay & Maliszewska,Maryla & Osorio-Rodarte,Israel & Tarr,David & Yonezawa,Hidemichi, 2016. "Poverty and shared prosperity implications of deep integration in Eastern and Southern Africa," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7660, The World Bank.
    11. Edward J. Balistreri & David G. Tarr & Hidemichi Yonezawa, 2015. "Deep Integration in Eastern and Southern Africa: What are the Stakes?," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 24(5), pages 677-706.
    12. Nicolas Berman & Alan Asprilla & Olivier Cadot & Mélise Jaud, 2015. "Pricing-to-market, Trade Policy, and Market Power," IHEID Working Papers 04-2015, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies.
    13. repec:bla:apacel:v:30:y:2016:i:2:p:72-89 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. World Bank Group, 2016. "A Comparative Overview of the Incidence of Non-Tariff Measures on Trade in Lao PDR," World Bank Other Operational Studies 24021, The World Bank.
    15. Cadot, Olivier, 2015. "NTMs, Preferential Trade Agreements, and Prices: New evidence," Papers 807, World Trade Institute.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Ad-valorem equivalent; Price-raising impact of non tariff measures; Africa;

    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F11 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Neoclassical Models of Trade
    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • O55 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Africa

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