Labour Taxation and Foreign Direct Investment
This paper analyzes the implications of effective taxation of labor for profits and, hence, the location decision of a multinational enterprise. We set up a stylized partial equilibrium model and, presuming that worker effort is a function of net wages, assume that a higher employee-borne tax burden reduces effort. In turn, this raises a firm’s production costs and reduces efficiency. Accordingly, we show that a higher employee-borne income tax negatively influences a multinational’s profit by reducing manager effort. Furthermore, we compile data on personal income tax profiles for 49 economies and the year 2002. We decompose tax profiles into the component borne by employers and that borne by employees. We then determine effective tax rates for employees across four centiles of the distribution of gross wages: 33, 100, 167, and 500 percent of the average, following the OECD’s Taxing Wages Approach. Apart from describing features of the personal income tax data, we use them to shed light on their role for bilateral foreign direct investment (FDI) stocks among the economies considered. Not surprisingly, personal income tax rates turn out relatively less important than profit tax rates for bilateral FDI stocks. The employee-borne part of labor taxes determines bilateral FDI significantly different from zero: both a higher employee-borne tax rate on average wages and, in particular, an increase in the progression from the average wage to five times the average wage is less conducive to headquarters location and, hence, reduces a country’s bilateral outward FDI stocks.
|Date of creation:||2008|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +49 (89) 9224-0
Fax: +49 (89) 985369
Web page: http://www.cesifo.de
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Joao Santos Silva & Silvana Tenreyro, 2005.
"The log of gravity,"
LSE Research Online Documents on Economics
3744, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Ronald G. Ehrenberg & Michael L. Bognanno, 1990. "The incentive effects of tournaments revisited: Evidence from the European PGA tour," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 43(3), pages 74-88, February.
- Devereux, Michael P. & Griffith, Rachel, 1998.
"Taxes and the location of production: evidence from a panel of US multinationals,"
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 68(3), pages 335-367, June.
- Michael Devereux & Rachel Griffith, 1996. "Taxes and the location of production: evidence from a panel of US multinationals," IFS Working Papers W96/14, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Michael P. Devereux & R. Glenn Hubbard, 2000.
NBER Working Papers
7920, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Markusen, James R., 2002.
"Multinational Firms and the Theory of International Trade,"
8380, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- James R. Markusen, 2004. "Multinational Firms and the Theory of International Trade," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262633078, June.
- Sascha O. Becker & Karolina Ekholm & Robert Jäckle & Marc-Andreas Muendler, 2005.
"Location Choice and Employment Decisions: A Comparison of German and Swedish Multinationals,"
Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv),
Springer, vol. 141(4), pages 693-731, December.
- Becker, Sasha O & Ekholm, Karolina & Jackle, Robert & Muendler, Marc-Andreas, 2004. "Location Choices and Employment Decisions: A Comparison of German and Swedish Multinationals," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series qt2fq490pd, Department of Economics, UC San Diego.
- Becker, Sascha O. & Ekholm, Karolina & Jäckle, Robert & Muendler, Marc-Andreas, 2005. "Location Choice and Employment Decisions: A Comparison of German and Swedish Multinationals," CEPR Discussion Papers 4887, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Becker, Sascha O. & Ekholm, Karolina & Jäckle, Robert & Mündler, Marc-Andreas, 2005. "Location choice and employment decisions: a comparison of German and Swedish multinationals," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2005,08, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
- Sascha O. Becker & Karolina Ekholm & Robert Jäckle & Marc-Andreas Muendler, 2005. "Location Choice and Employment Decisions:A Comparison of German and Swedish Multinationals," Ifo Working Paper Series Ifo Working Paper No. 4, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
- Sascha O. Becker & Karolina Ekholm & Robert Jäckle & Marc-Andreas Mündler, 2005. "Location Choice and Employment Decisions: A Comparison of German and Swedish Multinationals," Kiel Working Papers 1243, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
- Sascha O. Becker & Karolina Ekholm & Robert Jaeckle & Marc-Andreas Muendler, 2005. "Location Choice and Employment Decisions: A Comparison of German and Swedish Multinationals," CESifo Working Paper Series 1374, CESifo Group Munich.
- Edward P. Lazear, 1996.
"Performance Pay and Productivity,"
NBER Working Papers
5672, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Lawrence M. Kahn & Peter D. Sherer, 1990. "Contingent pay and managerial performance," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 43(3), pages 107-120, February.
- Pisauro, Giuseppe, 1991. "The effect of taxes on labour in efficiency wage models," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 329-345, December.
- Eckard Janeba, .
"Tax Competition in Imperfectly Competitive Markets,"
Discussion Paper Serie A
513, University of Bonn, Germany.
- Janeba, Eckhard, 1998. "Tax competition in imperfectly competitive markets," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 135-153, February.
- Canice Prendergast, 1996. "What Happens Within Firms? A Survey of Empirical Evidence on Compensation Policies," NBER Working Papers 5802, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_2309. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Julio Saavedra)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.