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Incorporation and Taxation: Theory and Firm-level Evidence

Author

Listed:
  • Peter Egger

    () (Ifo Institute, University of Munich, WIFO and CESifo)

  • Christian Keuschnigg

    () (University of St. Gallen (IFF-HSG))

  • Hannes Winner

    () (University of Salzburg)

Abstract

This paper provides a theory and firm-level evidence on the incorporation decision of entrepreneurs in a model of taxes and corporate governance. The theory explains how the incorporation decision of entrepreneurs is driven by taxation (corporate and personal income taxes), corporate transparency, access to external capital and limited liability. We estimate features of this model using a large cross-section of more than 540, 000 firms in European manufacturing. We find that higher personal income tax rates favor incorporation while higher corporate tax rates reduce the probability to incorporate. These findings are robust to the inclusion of other economic and institutional determinants of external financing and choice of organizational form.

Suggested Citation

  • Peter Egger & Christian Keuschnigg & Hannes Winner, 2009. "Incorporation and Taxation: Theory and Firm-level Evidence," Working Papers 0908, Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation.
  • Handle: RePEc:btx:wpaper:0908
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Annette Alstadsater & Knut Reidar Wangen, 2010. "Small Corporations' Income Shifting through Choice of Ownership Structure - a Norwegian Case," Finnish Economic Papers, Finnish Economic Association, vol. 23(2), pages 73-87, Autumn.
    2. Michael Funke & Marc Gronwald, 2009. "A Convex Hull Approach to Counterfactual Analysis of Trade Openness and Growth," Quantitative Macroeconomics Working Papers 20906, Hamburg University, Department of Economics.
    3. Mazhar Waseem, 2013. "Taxes, Informality and Income Shifting: Evidence from a Recent Pakistani Tax Reform," 2013 Papers pwa641, Job Market Papers.
    4. Michael P. Devereux & Li Liu & Simon Loretz, 2014. "The Elasticity of Corporate Taxable Income: New Evidence from UK Tax Records," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 6(2), pages 19-53, May.
    5. Haufler, Andreas & Norbäck, Pehr-Johan & Persson, Lars, 2014. "Entrepreneurial innovations and taxation," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 13-31.
    6. Li Liu, 2014. "Income Taxation and Business Incorporation: Evidence From the Early Twentieth Century," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association;National Tax Journal, vol. 67(2), pages 387-418, June.
    7. Da Rin, Marco & Di Giacomo, Marina & Sembenelli, Alessandro, 2011. "Entrepreneurship, firm entry, and the taxation of corporate income: Evidence from Europe," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(9), pages 1048-1066.
    8. Elschner, Christina, 2013. "Special tax regimes and the choice of organizational form: Evidence from the European Tonnage Taxes," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 206-216.
    9. Da Rin, M. & Di Giacomo, M. & Sembenelli, A., 2009. "Entrepreneurship, Firm Entry, and the Taxation of Corporate Income : Evidence from Europe (Revised version of DP 2008-65)," Discussion Paper 2009-61, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    10. Christian Keuschnigg & Peter Egger & Hannes Winner, 2010. "A Theory of Taxation and Incorporation," University of St. Gallen Department of Economics working paper series 2010 2010-25, Department of Economics, University of St. Gallen.
    11. Christian Keuschnigg & Evelyn Ribi, 2010. "Business Taxation, Corporate Finance and Economic Performance," University of St. Gallen Department of Economics working paper series 2010 2010-04, Department of Economics, University of St. Gallen.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Incorporation; governance; taxes; discrete choice models;

    JEL classification:

    • H25 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Business Taxes and Subsidies
    • H73 - Public Economics - - State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations - - - Interjurisdictional Differentials and Their Effects
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • C21 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models

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