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Nordic Dual Income Taxation of Entrepreneurs

  • Vesa Kanniainen
  • Seppo Kari
  • Jouko Ylä-Liedenpohja

The paper shows how entrepreneurial taxes interact with the career choice of individuals, the quality of entrepreneurs, and their effort and investments. It is particularly relevant to differentiate the early effects on start-up enterprises with substantial uncertainty from the tax effects on mature firms where the uncertainty is resolved. That is why the neutrality results of dividend taxation from mature company theory do not carry over to start-up enterprises. The Nordic dual model encourages (discourages) the establishment of new enterprises by entrepreneurs who anticipate high (low) profitability.

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Paper provided by CESifo Group Munich in its series CESifo Working Paper Series with number 1623.

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Date of creation: 2005
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Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_1623
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  1. Sinn, Hans-Werner, 1991. "The vanishing harberger triangle," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 271-300, August.
  2. Alan J. Auerbach & Mervyn A. King, 1983. "Taxation, Portfolio Choice, and Debt-Equity Ratios: A General Equilibrium Model," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 98(4), pages 587-609.
  3. Christian Keuschnigg & Soren Bo Nielsen, 2000. "Tax Policy, Venture Capital, and Entrepreneurship," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 1848, Econometric Society.
  4. King, Mervyn, 1989. "Economic growth and the life-cycle of firms," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 33(2-3), pages 325-334, March.
  5. Alan J. Auerbach, 1979. "Wealth Maximization and the Cost of Capital," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 93(3), pages 433-446.
  6. Lindhe, Tobias & Södersten, Jan & Öberg, Ann, 2001. "Economic Effects of Taxing Closed Corporations under a Dual Income Tax," Working Paper Series 2001:16, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
  7. Parker,Simon C., 2006. "The Economics of Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521030632, September.
  8. Sinn, H.W., 1990. "Taxation And The Cost Of Capital: The "Old" View, And Another View," Papers 59, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Discussion Paper.
  9. Bradford, David F., 1981. "The incidence and allocation effects of a tax on corporate distributions," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 1-22, February.
  10. Hans-Werner Sinn, 1991. "Taxation and the Cost of Capital: The "Old" View, the "New" View, and Another View," NBER Chapters, in: Tax Policy and the Economy, Volume 5, pages 25-54 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Peter Birch Sørensen, 2003. "Neutral Taxation of Shareholder Income: A Norwegian Tax Reform Proposal," CESifo Working Paper Series 1036, CESifo Group Munich.
  12. Martin D. Dietz, 2004. "Dividend and Capital Gains Taxation in a Cross-Section of Firms," Public Economics 0405004, EconWPA.
  13. Fuest, Clemens & Huber, Bernd & Nielsen, Soren B., 2003. "Why is the corporate tax rate lower than the personal tax rate?: The role of new firms," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 157-174, January.
  14. Arnold C. Harberger, 1962. "The Incidence of the Corporation Income Tax," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 70, pages 215.
  15. Alan J. Auerbach, 1982. "Taxation, Corporate Financial Policy and the Cost of Capital," NBER Working Papers 1026, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. Seppo Kari, 1999. "Dynamic Behaviour of the Firm Under Dual Income Taxation," Research Reports 51, Government Institute for Economic Research Finland (VATT).
  17. Martin D. Dietz & Christian Keuschnigg, 2005. "A Growth Oriented Dual Income Tax," CESifo Working Paper Series 1513, CESifo Group Munich.
  18. Christian Keuschnigg, 2001. "Business Formation and Aggregate Investment," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 2(1), pages 31-55, 02.
  19. Annette Alstadsæter, 2003. "The Dual Income Tax and Firms' Income Shifting through the Choice of Organizational Form and Real Capital Investments," CESifo Working Paper Series 1018, CESifo Group Munich.
  20. Pekka Ilmakunnas & Vesa Kanniainen & Uki Lammi, . "Entrepreneurship, Economic Risks, and Risk-Insurance in the Welfare State," EPRU Working Paper Series 99-03, Economic Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
  21. Marta Coelho & David de Meza & Diane Reyniers, 2004. "Irrational Exuberance, Entrepreneurial Finance and Public Policy," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 11(4), pages 391-417, 08.
  22. Erik Fjaerli & Diderik Lund, 2001. "The choice between owner's wages and dividends under the dual income tax," Finnish Economic Papers, Finnish Economic Association, vol. 14(2), pages 104-119, Autumn.
  23. Tobias Lindhe & Jan Södersten & Ann Öberg, 2004. "Economic Effects of Taxing Different Organizational Forms under the Nordic Dual Income Tax," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 11(4), pages 469-485, 08.
  24. de Meza, David & Webb, David, 1999. "Wealth, Enterprise and Credit Policy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(455), pages 153-63, April.
  25. Geroski, P. A., 1995. "What do we know about entry?," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 421-440, December.
  26. Vesa Kanniainen & Seppo Kari & Jouko Ylä-Liedenpohja, 2005. "The Start-Up and Growth Stages in Enterprise Formation: The “New View” of Dividend Taxation Reconsidered," CESifo Working Paper Series 1476, CESifo Group Munich.
  27. Peter Sørensen, 1994. "From the global income tax to the dual income tax: Recent tax reforms in the Nordic countries," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 1(1), pages 57-79, February.
  28. Moresi, Serge, 1998. "Optimal taxation and firm formation:: A model of asymmetric information," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(8), pages 1525-1551, September.
  29. Nielsen, Soren Bo & Sorensen, Peter Birch, 1997. "On the optimality of the Nordic system of dual income taxation," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 311-329, February.
  30. repec:pal:imfstp:v:45:y:1998:i:1:p:49-80 is not listed on IDEAS
  31. Paolo M. Panteghini, 2001. "Dual income taxation : the choice of the imputed rate of return," Finnish Economic Papers, Finnish Economic Association, vol. 14(1), pages 5-13, Spring.
  32. King, Mervyn A, 1974. "Dividend Behaviour and the Theory of the Firm," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 41(161), pages 25-34, February.
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