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Dynamic Behaviour of the Firm Under Dual Income Taxation

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  • Kari, Seppo

Abstract

This study examines certain incentive aspects of the dual income tax system (DIT) operated in the four major Nordic countries since the beginning of the 1990s. In this tax system capital income is taxed at a flat rate, whereas earned income is subject to a conventional progressive schedule. The analysis focuses on the splitting of dividend income received from a closely held firm into capital and earned income parts. A deterministic, dynamic investment model as developed by Sinn (1991) is applied. This basic model is extended in several directions. The study in chapters 2 and 3 reveals that Nordic DIT may have strong effects on the firm?s investment and financing behaviour. In extreme cases the firm?s cost of capital can even be negative. These effects may also have efficiency and welfare consequences. The study also shows that the distortions are very sensitive to the content of the capital base concept. For instance, when financial assets are included in the capital base the firm?s marginal return on capital is at the level of the nominal interest rate, thus eliminating the real distortions discussed above.

Suggested Citation

  • Kari, Seppo, 1999. "Dynamic Behaviour of the Firm Under Dual Income Taxation," Research Reports 51, VATT Institute for Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:fer:resrep:51
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    File URL: https://www.doria.fi/handle/10024/148513
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Seppo Kari & Jouko Ylä-Liedenpohja, 2004. "Cost of Capital for Cross-Border Investment: The Fallacy of Estonia as a Tax Haven," Baltic Journal of Economics, Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies, vol. 5(1), pages 28-43, December.
    2. Pirttilä, Jukka & Selin, Håkan, 2006. "How Successful is the Dual Income Tax? Evidence from the Finnish Tax Reform of 1993," Working Paper Series 2006:26, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
    3. Harri Hietala & Seppo Kari, 2006. "Investment Incentives in Closely Held Corporations and Finland's 2005 Tax Reform," Finnish Economic Papers, Finnish Economic Association, vol. 19(2), pages 41-47, Autumn.
    4. Seppo Kari & Jouko Ylä-Liedenpohja, 2005. "Effects of an Equalization Tax on Multinational Investments and Transfer Pricing," FinanzArchiv: Public Finance Analysis, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 61(1), pages 1-45, March.
    5. Kari, Seppo & Ylä-Liedenpohja, Jouko, 2004. "Effects of Equalization Tax on Multinational Investments and Transfer Pricing," Discussion Papers 337, VATT Institute for Economic Research.
    6. Lindhe, Tobias & Södersten, Jan & Öberg, Ann, 2003. "Economic Effects of Taxing Different Organizational Forms under a Dual Income Tax," Working Paper Series 2003:19, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
    7. Seppo Kari & Hanna Karikallio, 2007. "Tax treatment of dividends and capital gains and the dividend decision under dual income tax," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 14(4), pages 427-456, August.
    8. Vesa Kanniainen & Seppo Kari & Jouko Ylä-Liedenpohja, 2007. "Nordic dual income taxation of entrepreneurs," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 14(4), pages 407-426, August.
    9. Brys, B. & Bovenberg, A.L., 2006. "The Life Cycle of the Firm with Debt and Capital Income Taxes," Discussion Paper 2006-91, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    10. Lindhe, T. & Sodersten, J. & Oberg, A., 2001. "Economic Effects of Taxing Closed Corporations under a Dual Income Tax," Papers 2001:16, Uppsala - Working Paper Series.
    11. Annette Alstadsæter & Erik Fjærli, 2009. "Neutral taxation of shareholder income? Corporate responses to an announced dividend tax," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 16(4), pages 571-604, August.
    12. Vesa Kanniainen & Seppo Kari & Jouko Ylä-Liedenpohja, 2005. "The Start-Up and Growth Stages in Enterprise Formation: The “New View” of Dividend Taxation Reconsidered," CESifo Working Paper Series 1476, CESifo Group Munich.
    13. Annette Alstadsaeter, 2007. "The Achilles Heel of the Dual Income Tax: The Norwegian Case," Finnish Economic Papers, Finnish Economic Association, vol. 20(1), pages 5-22, Spring.
    14. Luis H. R. Alvarez & Erkki Koskela, 2007. "Irreversible Capital Accumulation and Nonlinear Tax Policy: A Note," FinanzArchiv: Public Finance Analysis, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 63(1), pages 46-53, March.

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