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Effects of Equalization Tax on Multinational Investments and Transfer Pricing


  • Kari, Seppo
  • Ylä-Liedenpohja, Jouko


This paper analyzes effects of equalization tax on the decisions of a multinational company. Equalization tax is an extra corporation tax on dividend distributions to ensure that the underlying profit of a dividend has borne a tax in the corporate sector equal to the imputation credit given to the shareholder. Equalization tax is shown to increase incentives for home-country real and financial investments and for transfer pricing to shift taxable income even from low-tax countries to high-tax home-countries of the parent companies. The current EU process of exchanging the imputation system and an equalization tax for a classical system may thus have adverse tax revenue effects in the countries concerned, but improves efficiency of the global economy.

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  • Kari, Seppo & Ylä-Liedenpohja, Jouko, 2004. "Effects of Equalization Tax on Multinational Investments and Transfer Pricing," Discussion Papers 337, VATT Institute for Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:fer:dpaper:337

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Boadway, Robin & Bruce, Neil, 1992. "Problems with integrating corporate and personal income taxes in an open economy," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 39-66, June.
    2. Sarvimäki, Matti, 2009. "Essays on migration," Research Reports 51, VATT Institute for Economic Research.
    3. Michael Devereux & Harold Freeman, 1995. "The impact of tax on foreign direct investment: Empirical evidence and the implications for tax integration schemes," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 2(1), pages 85-106, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. Seppo Kari & Jouko Ylä-Liedenpohja, 2004. "Cost of Capital for Cross-Border Investment: The Fallacy of Estonia as a Tax Haven," Baltic Journal of Economics, Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies, vol. 5(1), pages 28-43, December.


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