IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/cde/cdewps/192.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Repayment Incentives And The Distribution Of Gains From Group Lending

Author

Listed:
  • Jean-Marie Baland

    (University of Namur)

  • Rohini Somanathan

    (Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics & Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton)

  • Zaki Wahhaj

    (University of Oxford)

Abstract

Group loans with joint liability have been a distinguishing feature of many micro nance programs. While such lending has bene tted millions of borrowers, major lending insti- tutions have acknowledged their limited impact among the very poor and have recently favored individual contracts. This paper attempts to understand these empirical patterns using a model in which there is a single investment project and access to credit is limited by weak repayment incentives. We show that in the absence of large social sanctions, the poorest borrowers are o ered individual and not group contracts. When both types of contracts are feasible, the relative gains from group loans are shown to be decreasing in loan size. We compare the role of bank enforcement with social sanctions and nd that bank enforcement is more e ective in increasing outreach while social sanctions raise the welfare of infra-marginal borrowers. Finally, we explore the welfare e ects of group size and nd that those requiring small loans are better served by larger groups but group size e ects are, in general, ambiguous.

Suggested Citation

  • Jean-Marie Baland & Rohini Somanathan & Zaki Wahhaj, 2010. "Repayment Incentives And The Distribution Of Gains From Group Lending," Working papers 192, Centre for Development Economics, Delhi School of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:cde:cdewps:192
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.cdedse.org/pdf/work192.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ghatak, Maitreesh & Guinnane, Timothy W., 1999. "The economics of lending with joint liability: theory and practice," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 195-228, October.
    2. Ahlin, Christian & Townsend, Robert M., 2007. "Selection into and across credit contracts: Theory and field research," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 136(2), pages 665-698, February.
    3. Thiemo Fetzer & Maitreesh Ghatak & Jonathan de Quidt, 2012. "Market Structure and Borrower Welfare in Microfinance," STICERD - Economic Organisation and Public Policy Discussion Papers Series 40, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
    4. Dean Karlan & Jonathan Zinman, 2009. "Observing Unobservables: Identifying Information Asymmetries With a Consumer Credit Field Experiment," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 77(6), pages 1993-2008, November.
    5. Oded Galor & Joseph Zeira, 1993. "Income Distribution and Macroeconomics," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 60(1), pages 35-52.
    6. Klaus Abbink & Bernd Irlenbusch & Elke Renner, 2006. "Group Size and Social Ties in Microfinance Institutions," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 44(4), pages 614-628, October.
    7. Xavier Giné & Dean Karlan, 2009. "Group versus Individual Liability: Long Term Evidence from Philippine Microcredit Lending Groups," Working Papers 970, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
    8. Bond, Philip & Rai, Ashok S., 2008. "Cosigned vs. group loans," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(1-2), pages 58-80, February.
    9. Banerjee, Abhijit V & Newman, Andrew F, 1993. "Occupational Choice and the Process of Development," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(2), pages 274-298, April.
    10. Gine, Xavier & Karlan, Dean S., 2009. "Group versus Individual Liability: Long Term Evidence from Philippine Microcredit Lending Groups," Center Discussion Papers 50951, Yale University, Economic Growth Center.
    11. Kiminori Matsuyama, 2000. "Endogenous Inequality," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 67(4), pages 743-759.
    12. Besley, Timothy & Coate, Stephen, 1995. "Group lending, repayment incentives and social collateral," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 1-18, February.
    13. Bulow, Jeremy & Rogoff, Kenneth, 1989. "Sovereign Debt: Is to Forgive to Forget?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(1), pages 43-50, March.
    14. Alessandra Cassar & Luke Crowley & Bruce Wydick, 2007. "The effect of social capital on group loan repayment: evidence from field experiments," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 117(517), pages 85-106, February.
    15. Bhole, Bharat & Ogden, Sean, 2010. "Group lending and individual lending with strategic default," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(2), pages 348-363, March.
    16. Ashok S. Rai & Tomas Sjöström, 2004. "Is Grameen Lending Efficient? Repayment Incentives and Insurance in Village Economies," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 71(1), pages 217-234.
    17. Hermes, Niels & Lensink, Robert, 2011. "Microfinance: Its Impact, Outreach, and Sustainability," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 875-881, June.
    18. repec:pri:rpdevs:morduch_microfinance_poor is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Gine, Xavier & Karlan, Dean, 2009. "Group versus Individual Liability: Long Term Evidence from Philippine Microcredit Lending Groups," Center Discussion Papers 229136, Yale University, Economic Growth Center.
    20. Jonathan Morduch, 1998. "Does Microfinance Really Help the Poor? New Evidence from Flagship Programs in Bangladesh," Working Papers 198, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Research Program in Development Studies..
    21. Coleman, Brett E., 2006. "Microfinance in Northeast Thailand: Who benefits and how much?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 1612-1638, September.
    22. Dewan, Isha & Somanathan, Rohini, 2011. "The application of nonparametric tests to poverty targeting," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 113(1), pages 58-61, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. de Quidt, Jonathan & Fetzer, Thiemo & Ghatak, Maitreesh, 2016. "Group lending without joint liability," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 121(C), pages 217-236.
    2. repec:cep:stieop:44 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. de Quidty, Jonathan & Fetzer, Thiemo & Ghatak, Maitreesh, 2016. "Commercialization and the Decline of Joint Liability Microcredit," Economic Research Papers 269575, University of Warwick - Department of Economics.
    4. Jean-Marie Baland & Rohini Somanathan & Zaki Wahhaj, 2014. "Group Lending and Endogenous Social Sanctions," Studies in Economics 1415, School of Economics, University of Kent.
    5. Ahlin, Christian, 2015. "The role of group size in group lending," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 115(C), pages 140-155.
    6. Jean-Marie Baland & Rohini Somanathan & Lore Vandewalle, 2011. "Socially Disadvantaged Groups and Microfinance in India," Working Papers 1117, University of Namur, Department of Economics.
    7. P Simmons (York) & N Tantisantiwong (Southampton), 2014. "Default and Risk Premia in Microfinance Group Lending," Discussion Papers 14/28, Department of Economics, University of York.
    8. Fetzer, Thiemo, 2016. "Commercialization and the Decline of Joint Liability Microcredit," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 1119, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
    9. Ahlin, Christian & Waters, Brian, 2016. "Dynamic microlending under adverse selection: Can it rival group lending?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 121(C), pages 237-257.
    10. repec:eee:deveco:v:134:y:2018:i:c:p:209-225 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Allen, Treb, 2016. "Optimal (partial) group liability in microfinance lending," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 121(C), pages 201-216.
    12. Baland, Jean-Marie & Gangadharan, Lata & Maitra, Pushkar & Somanathan, Rohini, 2017. "Repayment and exclusion in a microfinance experiment," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 137(C), pages 176-190.
    13. Janssens, Wendy & Kramer, Berber, 2016. "The social dilemma of microinsurance: Free-riding in a framed field experiment," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 131(PB), pages 47-61.
    14. Bulte, Erwin & Wang, Ruixin & Zhang, Xiaobo, 2017. "Forced gifts: The burden of being a friend," IFPRI discussion papers 1615, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    15. Peter Simmons & Nongnuch Tantisantiwong, 2018. "Evaluation of Individual and Group Lending under Asymmetric information," Discussion Papers 18/01, Department of Economics, University of York.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    microcredit; joint-liability; group lending; repayment incentives; social sanctions.;

    JEL classification:

    • I38 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Government Programs; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
    • O16 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment; Corporate Finance and Governance

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cde:cdewps:192. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sanjeev Sharma). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/cdudein.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.