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Pricing Risk in Economies with Heterogenous Agents and Incomplete Markets

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  • Josep Pijoan-Mas

    (CEMFI)

Abstract

Habit formation has been proposed as a possible solution for explaining the equity premium puzzle. This paper extends the class of models that support the habits explanation in order to account for heterogeneity in earnings, wealth, habits and consumption. I find that habit formation increases the equity premium. However, contrary to the earlier results in the literature, the habit hypothesis does not imply a price for risk much higher than the one implied by models with intertemporally separable preferences. The main reasons for this are general equilibrium ones. First, with just two assets available, households can smooth out consumption fluctuations very well. Therefore, the higher utility losses of uncertainty imposed by habits will not command a high price of risk because households manage to avoid this risk. Second, the composition of the set of agents pricing the assets is sensitive to changes in the model. In an economy with habits, pricing agents turn out to be households facing very small consumption fluctuations. In addition I characterize three important properties of the model economy that relate to portfolio choice: willingness to hold risky assets (1) increases with wealth, (2) decreases with labor earnings and (3) decreases with habit stock.

Suggested Citation

  • Josep Pijoan-Mas, 2002. "Pricing Risk in Economies with Heterogenous Agents and Incomplete Markets," Centro de Alti­simos Estudios Ri­os Pe©rez(CAERP) 3, Centro de Altisimos Estudios Rios Perez (CAERP).
  • Handle: RePEc:cae:caerpp:3
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    File URL: http://www.ssc.upenn.edu/~vr0j/caerp/WPapers/HabAssPr_CAERP.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Diaz, Antonia & Pijoan-Mas, Josep & Rios-Rull, Jose-Victor, 2003. "Precautionary savings and wealth distribution under habit formation preferences," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(6), pages 1257-1291, September.
    2. Francisco Gomes & Alexander Michaelides, 2003. "Portfolio Choice With Internal Habit Formation: A Life-Cycle Model With Uninsurable Labor Income Risk," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 6(4), pages 729-766, October.
    3. repec:spr:joecth:v:64:y:2017:i:2:d:10.1007_s00199-016-0984-1 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Budria, Santiago & Díaz, Antonia, 2006. "Term premium and equity premium in economies with habit formation," UC3M Working papers. Economics we065522, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Economía.
    5. Kjell Arne Brekke & Olof Johansson-Stenman, 2008. "The behavioural economics of climate change," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 24(2), pages 280-297, Summer.
    6. Josep Pijoan-Mas, 2006. "Precautionary Savings or Working Longer Hours?," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 9(2), pages 326-352, April.
    7. Marco Cozzi, 2015. "The Krusell–Smith Algorithm: Are Self-Fulfilling Equilibria Likely?," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 46(4), pages 653-670, December.
    8. Holger Kraft & Claus Munk & Frank Thomas Seifried & Sebastian Wagner, 2017. "Consumption habits and humps," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 64(2), pages 305-330, August.
    9. Yann Algan & Olivier Allais & Eva Carceles-Poveda, 2009. "Macroeconomic Effects of Financial Policy," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 12(4), pages 678-696, October.
    10. Santiago Budría & Antonia Díaz, 2006. "Term and Equity Premium in Economies with Habit Formation," Working Papers 2006-23, FEDEA.
    11. Shuhei Takahashi, 2015. "Time-Varying Wage Risk, Incomplete Markets, and Business Cycles," KIER Working Papers 912, Kyoto University, Institute of Economic Research.
    12. Johdo, Wataru, 2009. "Habit persistence and stagnation," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 1110-1114, September.
    13. Eva Carceles-Poveda, 2009. "Asset Prices and Business Cycles under Market Incompleteness," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 12(3), pages 405-422, July.
    14. Eduard Dubin & Olesya V. Grishchenko & Vasily Kartashov, 2012. "Habit formation heterogeneity: Implications for aggregate asset pricing," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2012-07, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Equity Premium; Habit Formation; Incomplete Markets;

    JEL classification:

    • D52 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Incomplete Markets
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • E21 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Consumption; Saving; Wealth
    • C68 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Computable General Equilibrium Models

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