IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/boe/boeewp/0690.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The leverage ratio and liquidity in the gilt and repo markets

Author

Listed:
  • Bicu, Andreea

    (Bank of England)

  • Chen, Louisa

    (University of Sussex)

  • Elliott, David

    (Bank of England)

Abstract

Market participants have argued that a significant unintended consequence of post-crisis regulatory leverage ratio requirements has been a reduction in the liquidity of fixed income markets. We assess this claim in the context of the gilt (UK government bond) and gilt repo markets. We find that gilt repo liquidity worsened during the period when UK leverage ratio policy was announced, and that gilt liquidity worsened conditional on factors such as funding costs and inventory risk. We also find evidence that gilt repo liquidity has become less resilient. However, evidence from heterogeneity in dealer behaviour is inconclusive regarding a causal link between leverage ratio requirements and the reduction in market liquidity.

Suggested Citation

  • Bicu, Andreea & Chen, Louisa & Elliott, David, 2017. "The leverage ratio and liquidity in the gilt and repo markets," Bank of England working papers 690, Bank of England, revised 19 Dec 2017.
  • Handle: RePEc:boe:boeewp:0690
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/-/media/boe/files/working-paper/2017/the-leverage-ratio-and-liquidity-in-the-gilt-and-repo-markets.pdf?la=en&hash=71FA6253382B0141771D5C8FC6C8A1AE552CE6F3
    File Function: Full text
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Bank for International Settlements, 2017. "Repo market functioning," CGFS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 59, August.
    2. Soramäki, Kimmo & Bech, Morten L. & Arnold, Jeffrey & Glass, Robert J. & Beyeler, Walter E., 2007. "The topology of interbank payment flows," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 379(1), pages 317-333.
    3. Gromb, Denis & Vayanos, Dimitri, 2002. "Equilibrium and welfare in markets with financially constrained arbitrageurs," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2-3), pages 361-407.
    4. Cimon, David & Garriott, Corey, 2019. "Banking regulation and market making," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 109(C).
    5. Michael A. Goldstein & Edith S. Hotchkiss & Erik R. Sirri, 2007. "Transparency and Liquidity: A Controlled Experiment on Corporate Bonds," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 20(2), pages 235-273.
    6. Grace Xing Hu & Jun Pan & Jiang Wang, 2013. "Noise as Information for Illiquidity," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 68(6), pages 2341-2382, December.
    7. Markus K. Brunnermeier & Lasse Heje Pedersen, 2009. "Market Liquidity and Funding Liquidity," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(6), pages 2201-2238, June.
    8. Gorton, Gary & Metrick, Andrew, 2012. "Securitized banking and the run on repo," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 104(3), pages 425-451.
    9. Adrian, Tobias & Boyarchenko, Nina & Shachar, Or, 2017. "Dealer balance sheets and bond liquidity provision," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 92-109.
    10. Whitney K. Newey & Kenneth D. West, 1994. "Automatic Lag Selection in Covariance Matrix Estimation," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 61(4), pages 631-653.
    11. Amihud, Yakov, 2002. "Illiquidity and stock returns: cross-section and time-series effects," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 31-56, January.
    12. Dick-Nielsen, Jens & Feldhütter, Peter & Lando, David, 2012. "Corporate bond liquidity before and after the onset of the subprime crisis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(3), pages 471-492.
    13. Loriano Mancini & Angelo Ranaldo & Jan Wrampelmeyer, 2016. "The Euro Interbank Repo Market," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 29(7), pages 1747-1779.
    14. Newey, Whitney & West, Kenneth, 2014. "A simple, positive semi-definite, heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation consistent covariance matrix," Applied Econometrics, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), vol. 33(1), pages 125-132.
    15. Annalisa Bucalossi & Antonio Scalia, 2016. "Leverage ratio, central bank operations and repo market," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 347, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    16. Francesco Trebbi & Kairong Xiao, 2015. "Regulation and Market Liquidity," NBER Working Papers 21739, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    17. Arvind Krishnamurthy & Stefan Nagel & Dmitry Orlov, 2014. "Sizing Up Repo," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 69(6), pages 2381-2417, December.
    18. Nicola Anderson & John Sleath, 2001. "New estimates of the UK real and nominal yield curves," Bank of England working papers 126, Bank of England.
    19. Tobias Adrian & Michael J. Fleming & Or Shachar & Daniel Stackman & Erik Vogt, 2015. "Has Liquidity Risk in the Corporate Bond Market Increased?," Liberty Street Economics 20151006b, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    20. Benos, Evangelos & Zikes, Filip, 2016. "Liquidity determinants in the UK gilt market," Bank of England working papers 600, Bank of England.
    21. Hendrik Bessembinder & Kathleen M. Kahle & William F. Maxwell & Danielle Xu, 2009. "Measuring Abnormal Bond Performance," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(10), pages 4219-4258, October.
    22. Allahrakha, Meraj & Cetina, Jill & Munyan, Benjamin, 2018. "Do higher capital standards always reduce bank risk? The impact of the Basel leverage ratio on the U.S. triparty repo market," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 3-16.
    23. Andrews, Donald W K, 1993. "Tests for Parameter Instability and Structural Change with Unknown Change Point," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 61(4), pages 821-856, July.
    24. Jackson, Christopher & Sim , Mathew, 2013. "Recent developments in the sterling overnight money market," Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin, Bank of England, vol. 53(3), pages 223-233.
    25. Adam Copeland & Antoine Martin & Michael Walker, 2014. "Repo Runs: Evidence from the Tri-Party Repo Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 69(6), pages 2343-2380, December.
    26. Smith, Jonathan Acosta & Grill, Michael & Lang, Jan Hannes, 2017. "The leverage ratio, risk-taking and bank stability," Working Paper Series 2079, European Central Bank.
    27. Ho, Thomas S Y & Stoll, Hans R, 1983. "The Dynamics of Dealer Markets under Competition," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(4), pages 1053-1074, September.
    28. Tobias Adrian & Michael J. Fleming & Daniel Stackman & Erik Vogt, 2015. "Has Liquidity Risk in the Treasury and Equity Markets Increased?," Liberty Street Economics 20151006a, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    29. Roll, Richard, 1984. "A Simple Implicit Measure of the Effective Bid-Ask Spread in an Efficient Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(4), pages 1127-1139, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Dong Beom Choi & Michael R. Holcomb & Donald P. Morgan, 2020. "Bank Leverage Limits and Regulatory Arbitrage: Old Question‐New Evidence," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 52(S1), pages 241-266, October.
    2. Klingler, Sven & Syrstad, Olav, 2021. "Life after LIBOR," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 141(2), pages 783-801.
    3. Van Horen, Neeltje & Kotidis, Antonis, 2018. "Repo market functioning: the role of capital regulation," Bank of England working papers 746, Bank of England.
    4. Gurrola-Perez, Pedro & He, Jieshuang & Harper, Gary, 2019. "Securities settlement fails network and buy‑in strategies," Bank of England working papers 821, Bank of England.
    5. Richard K. Crump & João A. C. Santos, 2018. "Review of New York Fed studies on the effects of post-crisis banking reforms," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue 24-2, pages 71-90.
    6. Mayu Kikuchi & Alfred Wong & Jiayue Zhang, 2019. "Risk of window dressing: quarter-end spikes in the Japanese yen Libor-OIS spread," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 56(2), pages 149-166, December.
    7. Mallaburn, David & Roberts-Sklar, Matt & Silvestri, Laura, 2019. "Resilience of trading networks: evidence from the sterling corporate bond market," Bank of England working papers 813, Bank of England.
    8. Noss, Joseph & Patel, Rupal, 2019. "Decomposing changes in the functioning of the sterling repo market," Bank of England working papers 797, Bank of England.
    9. Gino Cenedese & Pasquale Della Corte & Tianyu Wang, 2021. "Currency Mispricing and Dealer Balance Sheets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 76(6), pages 2763-2803, December.
    10. Ranaldo, Angelo & Schaffner, Patrick & Vasios, Michalis, 2021. "Regulatory effects on short-term interest rates," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 141(2), pages 750-770.
    11. Aikman, David & Haldane, Andrew & Hinterschweiger, Marc & Kapadia, Sujit, 2018. "Rethinking financial stability," Bank of England working papers 712, Bank of England.
    12. Benos, Evangelos & Žikeš, Filip, 2018. "Funding constraints and liquidity in two-tiered OTC markets," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 24-43.
    13. Fullwood, Jonathan & Massacci, Daniele, 2018. "Liquidity resilience in the UK gilt futures market: evidence from the order book," Bank of England working papers 744, Bank of England.
    14. Hyeyoon Jung, 2021. "Real Consequences of Shocks to Intermediaries Supplying Corporate Hedging Instruments," Staff Reports 989, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    15. Dong Beom Choi & Michael R. Holcomb & Donald P. Morgan, 2018. "Bank leverage limits and regulatory arbitrage: new evidence on a recurring question," Staff Reports 856, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Bicu-Lieb, Andreea & Chen, Louisa & Elliott, David, 2020. "The leverage ratio and liquidity in the gilt and gilt repo markets," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 48(C).
    2. van Horen, Neeltje & Kotidis, Antonios, 2018. "Repo market functioning: The role of capital regulation," CEPR Discussion Papers 13090, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Ranaldo, Angelo & Schaffner, Patrick & Vasios, Michalis, 2021. "Regulatory effects on short-term interest rates," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 141(2), pages 750-770.
    4. Abbassi, Puriya & Fecht, Falko & Tischer, Johannes, 2015. "The intraday interest rate: What's that?," Discussion Papers 24/2015, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    5. Goldstein, Michael A. & Namin, Elmira Shekari, 2023. "Corporate bond liquidity and yield spreads: A review," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 65(C).
    6. Erik Vogt & Michael Fleming & Or Shachar & Tobias Adrian, 2017. "Market Liquidity After the Financial Crisis," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 9(1), pages 43-83, November.
    7. Francesco Trebbi & Kairong Xiao, 2019. "Regulation and Market Liquidity," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 67(5), pages 1949-1968, May.
    8. Friewald, Nils & Nagler, Florian, 2018. "Over-the-Counter Market Frictions and Yield Spread Changes," CEPR Discussion Papers 13345, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    9. Bao, Jack & O’Hara, Maureen & (Alex) Zhou, Xing, 2018. "The Volcker Rule and corporate bond market making in times of stress," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 130(1), pages 95-113.
    10. Moinas, Sophie & Nguyen, Minh & Valente, Giorgio, 2017. "Funding Constraints and Market Illiquidity in the European Treasury Bond Market," TSE Working Papers 17-814, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE).
    11. Vayanos, Dimitri & Wang, Jiang, 2013. "Market Liquidity—Theory and Empirical Evidence ," Handbook of the Economics of Finance, in: G.M. Constantinides & M. Harris & R. M. Stulz (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Finance, volume 2, chapter 0, pages 1289-1361, Elsevier.
    12. Helwege, Jean & Wang, Liying, 2021. "Liquidity and price pressure in the corporate bond market: evidence from mega-bonds," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 48(C).
    13. Corradin, Stefano & Heider, Florian & Hoerova, Marie, 2017. "On collateral: implications for financial stability and monetary policy," Working Paper Series 2107, European Central Bank.
    14. Nina Karnaukh & Angelo Ranaldo & Paul Söderlind, 2015. "Understanding FX Liquidity," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 28(11), pages 3073-3108.
    15. Noss, Joseph & Patel, Rupal, 2019. "Decomposing changes in the functioning of the sterling repo market," Bank of England working papers 797, Bank of England.
    16. Gerba, Eddie & Katsoulis, Petros, 2021. "The repo market under Basel III," Bank of England working papers 954, Bank of England.
    17. Benos, Evangelos & Žikeš, Filip, 2018. "Funding constraints and liquidity in two-tiered OTC markets," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 24-43.
    18. Benedikt Ballensiefen & Angelo Ranaldo, 2019. "Safe Asset Carry Trade," Working Papers on Finance 1909, University of St. Gallen, School of Finance, revised Oct 2019.
    19. Riccardo Poli & Marco Taboga, 2021. "A composite indicator of sovereign bond market liquidity in the euro area," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 663, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    20. Kurt F. Lewis & Francis A. Longstaff & Lubomir Petrasek, 2017. "Asset Mispricing," NBER Working Papers 23231, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Market liquidity; leverage ratio; bank regulation; repo; gilt market; market-making;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G24 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:boe:boeewp:0690. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Digital Media Team (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/boegvuk.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.