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Economic reforms and exchange rate pass-through to domestic prices in India


  • Jeevan K Khundrakpam


This paper examines the behaviour of exchange rate pass-through to domestic prices in India during the post-economic reforms initiated since the major devaluation of July 1991. It observes that there is no clear-cut evidence of a fall in exchange rate pass-through to domestic prices. Further, there is asymmetry in pass-through between appreciation and depreciation, and between sizes of the exchange rate change. Based on the empirical evidence provided in the literature, the paper conjectures that reductions in import tariffs, the removal of trade restrictions, the increased import penetration ratio and openness of the economy and the change in the composition of imports following the economic liberalisation could have transitorily negated the impact of lower inflation on pass-through. Part of the non-decline in long-run pass-through is due to a rise in inflation persistence. This could follow from the dismantling of price controls in an environment of periodic spurts in inflation around a non-declining inflationary trend, combined with a rise in the government deficit, which has a nexus with inflation in India.

Suggested Citation

  • Jeevan K Khundrakpam, 2007. "Economic reforms and exchange rate pass-through to domestic prices in India," BIS Working Papers 225, Bank for International Settlements.
  • Handle: RePEc:bis:biswps:225

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Obstfeld, Maurice & Rogoff, Kenneth, 1995. "Exchange Rate Dynamics Redux," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 103(3), pages 624-660, June.
    2. Jeannine Bailliu & Eiji Fujii, 2004. "Exchange Rate Pass-Through and the Inflation Environment in Industrialized Countries: An Empirical Investigation," Staff Working Papers 04-21, Bank of Canada.
    3. Jeffrey Frankel & David Parsley & Shang-Jin Wei, 2012. "Slow Pass-through Around the World: A New Import for Developing Countries?," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 23(2), pages 213-251, April.
    4. Pinelopi Koujianou Goldberg & Michael M. Knetter, 1997. "Goods Prices and Exchange Rates: What Have We Learned?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 35(3), pages 1243-1272, September.
    5. Gregory, Allan W. & Hansen, Bruce E., 1996. "Residual-based tests for cointegration in models with regime shifts," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 99-126, January.
    6. Betts, Caroline & Devereux, Michael B., 1996. "The exchange rate in a model of pricing-to-market," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(3-5), pages 1007-1021, April.
    7. Otani, Akira & Shiratsuka, Shigenori & Shirota, Toyoichiro, 2003. "The Decline in the Exchange Rate Pass-Through: Evidence from Japanese Import Prices," Monetary and Economic Studies, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan, vol. 21(3), pages 53-81, October.
    8. Gregory, Allan W. & Hansen, Bruce E., 1996. "Residual-based tests for cointegration in models with regime shifts," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 99-126, January.
    9. Patricia S. Pollard & Cletus C. Coughlin, 2004. "Size matters: asymmetric exchange rate pass-through at the industry level," Working Papers 2003-029, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    10. Jonathan McCarthy, 2007. "Pass-Through of Exchange Rates and Import Prices to Domestic Inflation in Some Industrialized Economies," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 33(4), pages 511-537, Fall.
    11. Giovanni P. Olivei, 2002. "Exchange rates and the prices of manufacturing products imported into the United States," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue Q 1, pages 3-18.
    12. Sven W. Arndt & J. David Richardson, 1987. "Real-Financial Linkages Among Open Economies," NBER Working Papers 2230, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Prasad, A & Khundrakpam, Jeevan Kumar, 2003. "Government Deficit and Inflation in India," MPRA Paper 51106, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2003.
    14. Mario Marazzi & Nathan Sheets & Robert J. Vigfusson & Jon Faust & Joseph E. Gagnon & Jaime R. Marquez & Robert F. Martin & Trevor A. Reeve & John H. Rogers, 2005. "Exchange rate pass-through to U.S. import prices: some new evidence," International Finance Discussion Papers 833, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    15. M S Mohanty & Marc Klau, 2001. "What determines inflation in emerging market economies?," BIS Papers chapters,in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Modelling aspects of the inflation process and the monetary transmission mechanism in emerging market countries, volume 8, pages 1-38 Bank for International Settlements.
    16. Helena Marques & Sushanta Mallick, 2004. "Sectoral Exchange Rate Pass-through: A Tale of Two Policy Regimes in India," Discussion Paper Series 2004_12, Department of Economics, Loughborough University, revised Mar 2004.
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    Cited by:

    1. Subit Gokarn & Bhupal Singh, 2011. "External factors and monetary policy: Indian evidence," BIS Papers chapters,in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Capital flows, commodity price movements and foreign exchange intervention, volume 57, pages 189-199 Bank for International Settlements.
    2. Naa Akofio-Sowah, 2009. "Is There a Link Between Exchange Rate Pass-Through and the Monetary Regime: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 15(3), pages 296-309, August.
    3. Carranza, Luis & Galdon-Sanchez, Jose E. & Gomez-Biscarri, Javier, 2011. "The relationship between investment and large exchange rate depreciations in dollarized economies," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(7), pages 1265-1279.
    4. International Monetary Fund, 2007. "Tunisia; Selected Issues," IMF Staff Country Reports 07/319, International Monetary Fund.
    5. repec:ris:betajl:0015 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Joseph P. Byrne & Aditya S. Chavali & Alexandros Kontonikas., 2010. "Exchange Rate Pass Through To Import Prices: Panel Evidence From Emerging Market Economies," Working Papers 2010_19, Business School - Economics, University of Glasgow.
    7. repec:eee:jpolmo:v:39:y:2017:i:2:p:349-370 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Pradyut Kumar Pyne & Saikat Sinha Roy, 2009. "Exchange Rate Pass-Through in India an Exploration with Sectoral Import Prices," DEGIT Conference Papers c014_038, DEGIT, Dynamics, Economic Growth, and International Trade.
    9. Yanamandra, Venkataramana, 2015. "Exchange rate changes and inflation in India: What is the extent of exchange rate pass-through to imports?," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 57-68.
    10. Ila Patnaik & Ajay Shah & Rudrani Bhattacharya, 2011. "Monetary Policy Transmission in an Emerging Market Setting," IMF Working Papers 11/5, International Monetary Fund.
    11. Berner, Eike, 2011. "Exchange rate pass-through: New evidence from German micro data," Economics Working Papers 2011-01, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Department of Economics.
    12. Kapur, Muneesh, 2013. "Revisiting the Phillips curve for India and inflation forecasting," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 17-27.
    13. Jinbin Wang & Nan Li, 2010. "Exchange rate pass-through: The case of China," Frontiers of Economics in China, Springer;Higher Education Press, vol. 5(3), pages 356-374, September.
    14. repec:kap:iaecre:v:15:y:2009:i:3:p:296-309 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Przystupa, Jan & Wróbel, Ewa, 2009. "Asymmetry of the exchange rate pass-through: An exercise on the Polish data," MPRA Paper 17660, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Carranza, Luis & Galdon-Sanchez, Jose E. & Gomez-Biscarri, Javier, 2009. "Exchange rate and inflation dynamics in dollarized economies," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(1), pages 98-108, May.
    17. Brun-Aguerre, Raphael & Fuertes, Ana-Maria & Phylaktis, Kate, 2012. "Exchange rate pass-through into import prices revisited: What drives it?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 818-844.

    More about this item


    pass-through; prices; exchange rate;

    JEL classification:

    • E31 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics

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