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Evaluación y análisis de eficiencia de la educación en Colombia

  • Ana María Iregui

    ()

  • Ligia Melo B.

    ()

  • Jorge Ramos

    ()

En este documento se presenta una visión amplia de los problemas y del funcionamiento del sector educativo en Colombia, con énfasis en la educación pública. Con este fin, en primer lugar, se realiza una evaluación detallada de las normas sobre descentralización educativa, así como de aquellas que rigen la carrera docente en el país; también se evalúa el comportamiento reciente de indicadores de gasto público, cobertura, eficiencia, calidad, se presentan algunas comparaciones internacionales y el esquema de remuneración e incentivos de los docentes. En segundo lugar, se mide el impacto sobre el rendimiento académico de factores asociados al colegio y al entorno socioeconómico de los estudiantes,y se estiman los niveles de eficiencia de una muestra de 4.542 colegios públicos y privados en el año 2002. Para este ejercicio se estima una función de producción del sistema educativo, utilizando técnicas de frontera estocástica. Los resultados indican que las variables asociadas a la infraestructura de los colegios y al entorno socioeconómico de los estudiantes, tienen un impacto positivo y significativo sobre el logro académico. En términos de eficiencia, los resultados muestran que los colegios privados se podrían estar beneficiando de condiciones de entorno más favorables, teniendo en cuenta que estos, en promedio, atienden alumnos de mayores ingresos. No obstante, cuando se asumen entornos equivalentes, no existen grandes diferencias en los niveles de eficiencia entre colegios públicos y privados.

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Paper provided by Banco de la Republica de Colombia in its series Borradores de Economia with number 381.

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Handle: RePEc:bdr:borrec:381
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  1. Jairo Núñez & Roberto Steiner & Ximena Cadena & Renata Pardo, 2002. "¿Cuáles Colegios Ofrecen Mejor Educación En Colombia?," DOCUMENTOS CEDE 003796, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
  2. Eric A. Hanushek, 2002. "Publicly Provided Education," NBER Working Papers 8799, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Hernán Rincón & Jorge Ramos & Ignacio Lozano, 2004. "Crisis Fiscal Actual: Diagnóstico Y Recomendaciones," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 002244, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  4. Battese, G E & Coelli, T J, 1995. "A Model for Technical Inefficiency Effects in a Stochastic Frontier Production Function for Panel Data," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 325-32.
  5. Hanushek, E-A & Rivkin, S-G & Taylor, L-L, 1995. "Aggregation and the Estimated Effects of School Resources," RCER Working Papers 397, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
  6. Jondrow, James & Knox Lovell, C. A. & Materov, Ivan S. & Schmidt, Peter, 1982. "On the estimation of technical inefficiency in the stochastic frontier production function model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2-3), pages 233-238, August.
  7. Izadi, Hooshang & Johnes, Geraint & Oskrochi, Reza & Crouchley, Robert, 2002. "Stochastic frontier estimation of a CES cost function: the case of higher education in Britain," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 63-71, February.
  8. Koshal, Rajindar K. & Koshal, Manjulika & Gupta, Ashok, 2001. "Multi-product total cost function for higher education: a case of bible colleges," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 297-303, June.
  9. Alejandro Mina, 2004. "Factores Asociados Al Logro Educativo A Nivel Municipal," DOCUMENTOS CEDE 002708, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
  10. Hanushek, Eric A, 1986. "The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 24(3), pages 1141-77, September.
  11. Eskil Heinesen & Brian Krogh Graversen, 2005. "The effect of school resources on educational attainment: evidence from Denmark," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(2), pages 109-143, 04.
  12. Alejandro GAVIRIA, 2001. "Determinantes de la calidad de la educación en Colombia," ARCHIVOS DE ECONOMÍA 002301, DEPARTAMENTO NACIONAL DE PLANEACIÓN.
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