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Central banking in Latin America: changes, achievements, challenges

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  • Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel

    () (Catholic Universty of Chile)

Abstract

Latin America's central banks were strengthened in the 1990s by independence laws, adoption of new policy regimes (foremost inflation targeting), and more transparent policy decisions bound by ex-ante rules and ex-post accountability. Central bank modernization - supported by significant fiscal adjustment and financial-sector strengthening - led most Latin American countries to converge to one-digit inflation rates and contributed to higher and more stable growth than in the past. Yet the region's new policy framework was put to severe testing by the global financial crisis and recession. Quick and innovative policy responses by the region's central banks helped domestic financial systems and the real economy to resist well the massive financial and real consequences of the banking crisis and recession in industrial countries. Empirical evidence reported here shows that the central banks' new policy framework and policy response during the crisis dampened significantly the amplitude of the recession. Having weathered well the global financial crisis and recession, now Latin America's central banks face a large array of policy challenges, which are reviewed in this lecture. Some are common to central banks in industrial and emerging economies, derived from the crisis itself and the issues it poses for improving the role of central banks in attaining more effectively both monetary and financial stability. Other challenges are idiosyncratic to emerging economies in the region (and elsewhere) that are facing renewed growth, high commodity prices, large capital inflows, and real exchange-rate appreciation.

Suggested Citation

  • Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel, 2011. "Central banking in Latin America: changes, achievements, challenges," Occasional Papers 1102, Banco de España;Occasional Papers Homepage.
  • Handle: RePEc:bde:opaper:1102
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    File URL: http://www.bde.es/f/webbde/SES/Secciones/Publicaciones/PublicacionesSeriadas/DocumentosOcasionales/11/Fich/do1102e.pdf
    File Function: First version, May 2011
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
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    3. Esther Gordo & Coral García & Jaime Martínez-Martín, 2008. "Una actualización de las funciones de exportación e importación de la economía española," Boletín Económico, Banco de España;Boletín Económico Homepage, issue DEC, Diciembre.
    4. Ana Buisan & Esther Gordo, 1994. "Funciones de importación y exportación de la economía española," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 18(1), pages 165-192, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Théret, Bruno, 2011. "Du keynésianisme au libertarianisme.La place de la monnaie dans les transformations du savoir économique autorisé," Revue de la Régulation - Capitalisme, institutions, pouvoirs, Association Recherche et Régulation, vol. 10.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Monetary Policy; Central Banks; Latin America;

    JEL classification:

    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies
    • O54 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Latin America; Caribbean

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