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Refining Macroeconomic Policies to Sustain Growth in Brazil

  • Annabelle Mourougane

This paper identifies refinements to the macroeconomic framework that will help Brazil to achieve strong performance in a new environment in which population will age at a rapid pace, heavy reliance on oil resources will increase public revenue volatility and uncertainties regarding the external environment are higher, possibly permanently. More specifically, the country needs to pursue fiscal consolidation and remove existing rigidities in the budget process. Over the medium term, moving to a headline budget target would ensure long-term sustainability of public (including social security) accounts, and introducing an expenditure ceiling and removing widespread revenue earmarking would help restrain expenditure. Adopting the proposals to simplify the tax system currently under discussion would improve the business environment, and the government should persevere in its effort to secure political support for them from the states. A pressing challenge is to adapt current transfer mechanisms to ensure regional and inter-generational equity in sharing oil revenues. The establishment of the social fund, which is designed to save part of the oil windfalls and whose investment returns will be allocated to social spending, could help these equity objectives to be reached, so long as it is well designed. The ongoing surge in capital inflows complicates the task of monetary policy and should be addressed through a range of policies, in which fiscal consolidation features prominently. Additional measures such as macro-prudential policies or a temporary tax on short-term capital inflows could also help to prevent the formation of asset price bubbles. This Working Paper relates to the 2011 OECD Economic Review of Brazil 2011 (www.oecd.org/eco/surveys/Brazil). Ajuster les politiques macroéconomiques pour soutenir la croissance Ce papier identifie les changements du cadre macroéconomique qui aideront le Brésil à réaliser des performances robuste dans un nouvel environnement dans lequel la population va vieillir rapidement, une forte dépendance vis-à-vis des revenus pétroliers vont accroître la volatilité des revenus publics et les incertitudes sur l’environnement international seront plus fortes, peut-être de manière durable. Plus précisément, le pays doit poursuivre l'assainissement de ses finances publiques et supprimer les facteurs de rigidité qui caractérisent la procédure budgétaire. Sur le moyen terme, l'adoption d'une cible de solde budgétaire global garantirait la viabilité à long terme des comptes publics (sécurité sociale comprise), tandis qu'un plafonnement des dépenses faciliterait leur maîtrise. La mise en oeuvre des propositions de simplification de la fiscalité actuellement à l'étude améliorerait l'environnement des entreprises, et le gouvernement devrait poursuivre ses efforts afin d'emporter l'adhésion politique des États fédérés à ces propositions. Il est urgent d’adapter les mécanismes actuels de transfert afin d’assurer l’équité régionale et intergénérationnelle en matière de partage des recettes pétrolières. La mise en place d’un fonds social, visant à économiser une partie de la manne pétrolière et dont le retour sur investissement servira à financer les dépenses sociales, pourrait contribuer à réaliser ces objectifs d’équité, pour autant que ce mécanisme soit conçu de façon satisfaisante. L'envolée actuelle des entrées de capitaux complique la tâche aux autorités monétaires et ce problème devrait être traité par divers moyens, au premier rang desquels figure l'assainissement des finances publiques. Des initiatives complémentaires, telles que des mesures macroprudentielles ou une taxe temporaire sur les entrées de capitaux à court terme, pourraient également contribuer à empêcher la formation de bulles des prix des actifs. Ce document de travail se rapporte à l’Étude économique de l’OCDE du Brésil 2011 (www.oecd.org/eco/etudes/Bresil).

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Paper provided by OECD Publishing in its series OECD Economics Department Working Papers with number 899.

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Date of creation: 21 Oct 2011
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Handle: RePEc:oec:ecoaaa:899-en
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  1. Olivier Jeanne & Anton Korinek, 2010. "Excessive Volatility in Capital Flows: A Pigouvian Taxation Approach," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(2), pages 403-07, May.
  2. M. Ayhan Kose & Eswar Prasad & Kenneth Rogoff & Shang-Jin Wei, 2006. "Financial Globalization; A Reappraisal," IMF Working Papers 06/189, International Monetary Fund.
  3. Francesco Caselli & Guy Michaels, 2009. "Do Oil Windfalls Improve Living Standards? Evidence from Brazil," NBER Working Papers 15550, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Jeffrey Frankel, 2011. "A Solution to Fiscal Procyclicality: the Structural Budget Institutions Pioneered by Chile," Journal Economía Chilena (The Chilean Economy), Central Bank of Chile, vol. 14(2), pages 39-78, August.
  5. A. R. Pagan & Douglas Laxton & Luis Catão, 2008. "Monetary Transmission in an Emerging Targeter; The Case of Brazil," IMF Working Papers 08/191, International Monetary Fund.
  6. Christian Daude & Ángel Melguizo & Alejandro Neut, 2010. "Fiscal Policy in Latin America: Countercyclical and Sustainable at Last?," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 291, OECD Publishing.
  7. Gylfason, Thorvaldur & Herbertsson, Tryggvi Thor & Zoega, Gylfi, 1999. "A Mixed Blessing," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 3(02), pages 204-225, June.
  8. Nicolas E. Magud E. & Carmen M. & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2011. "Capital Controls: Myth and Reality--A Portfolio Balance Approach," Working Paper Series WP11-7, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
  9. Paulo A. Medas & Daria Zakharova, 2009. "A Primeron Fiscal Analysis in Oil-Producing Countries," IMF Working Papers 09/56, International Monetary Fund.
  10. Annabelle Mourougane, 2011. "Explaining the Appreciation of the Brazilian real," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 901, OECD Publishing.
  11. Simon Gray, 2011. "Central Bank Balances and Reserve Requirements," IMF Working Papers 11/36, International Monetary Fund.
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