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Competing or Colluding in a Stochastic Framework

  • Adriana Breccia
  • Hector Salgado-Banda
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    This paper addresses the issue of anticompetitive and collusive practices in a continuous-time real option framework. We extend the symmetrical duopoly under uncertainty model by Dixit and Pindyck (1994), by granting a patent to the first innovator that files an application. The patent-investment race model is used to focus on long-term collusive agreements signed under a cooperative bargaining structure. The contributions are as follows. First, we show that, in a stochastic framework, competition always leads to different forms of inefficiency. Second, it is proved that, when entrepreneurs can sign long-term contracts via cooperative bargaining, collusion is always beneficial ex-ante since inefficiency disappears. Third, we show that whilst collusion always delays innovation, it does not necessarily delay competition. Depending on a number of economic, as well as firm-specific factors, collusion can actually accelerate competition.

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    File URL: http://www.bbk.ac.uk/ems/research/wp/PDF/BWPEF0504.pdf
    File Function: First version, 2005
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    Paper provided by Birkbeck, Department of Economics, Mathematics & Statistics in its series Birkbeck Working Papers in Economics and Finance with number 0504.

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    Date of creation: Jan 2005
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    Handle: RePEc:bbk:bbkefp:0504
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    1. Avinash K. Dixit & Robert S. Pindyck, 1994. "Investment under Uncertainty," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 5474, April.
    2. Kovacic, William E. & Shapiro, Carl, 1999. "Antitrust Policy: A Century of Economic and Legal Thinking," Competition Policy Center, Working Paper Series qt5zb4g387, Competition Policy Center, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
    3. Marshall, Robert C & Meurer, Michael J & Richard, Jean-Francois, 1994. "Litigation Settlement and Collusion," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(1), pages 211-39, February.
    4. Michael J. Meurer, 1989. "The Settlement of Patent Litigation," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 20(1), pages 77-91, Spring.
    5. Richard J. Gilbert and Willard K. Tom, 2001. "Is Innovation King at the Antitrust Agencies?: The Intellectual Property Guidelines Five Years Later," Economics Working Papers EC01-301, University of California at Berkeley.
    6. Grenadier, Steven R, 1996. " The Strategic Exercise of Options: Development Cascades and Overbuilding in Real Estate Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(5), pages 1653-79, December.
    7. Weeds, Helen, 2002. "Strategic Delay in a Real Options Model of R&D Competition," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 69(3), pages 729-47, July.
    8. Reiko Aoki & Jin-Li Hu, 1996. "Allocation of Legal Costs and Patent Litigation: A Cooperative Game Approach," Industrial Organization 9612001, EconWPA.
    9. Cooter, Robert D & Rubinfeld, Daniel L, 1989. "Economic Analysis of Legal Disputes and Their Resolution," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 27(3), pages 1067-97, September.
    10. Lambrecht, Bart & Perraudin, William, 2003. "Real options and preemption under incomplete information," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 619-643, February.
    11. Suzanne Scotchmer & Jerry Green, 1990. "Novelty and Disclosure in Patent Law," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 21(1), pages 131-146, Spring.
    12. Eduardo S. Schwartz, 2003. "Patents and R&D as Real Options," NBER Working Papers 10114, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Claude Crampes & Corinne Langinier, 2002. "Litigation and Settlement in Patent Infringement Cases," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 33(2), pages 258-274, Summer.
    14. F. M. Scherer & Jayashree Watal, 2002. "Post-TRIPS Options for Access to Patented Medicines in Developing Nations," Journal of International Economic Law, Oxford University Press, vol. 5(4), pages 913-939, December.
    15. Thijssen, J.J.J. & Huisman, K.J.M. & Kort, P.M., 2002. "Symmetric Equilibrium Strategies in Game Theoretical Real Option Models," Discussion Paper 2002-81, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    16. Jean O. Lanjouw & Josh Lerner, 1997. "The Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights: A Survey of the Empirical Literature," NBER Working Papers 6296, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    17. Reiss, Ariane, 1998. "Investment in Innovations and Competition: An Option Pricing Approach," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(3, Part 2), pages 635-650.
    18. Nicholas Bloom & John Van Reenen, 2002. "Patents, Real Options and Firm Performance," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(478), pages C97-C116, March.
    19. Nash, John, 1950. "The Bargaining Problem," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 18(2), pages 155-162, April.
    20. Katharine E. Rockett, 1990. "Choosing the Competition and Patent Licensing," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 21(1), pages 161-171, Spring.
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