Post-TRIPS Options for Access to Patented Medicines in Developing Nations
This article explores the tension between granting patent protection under the TRIPS Agreements and the availability of medicines at affordable prices to developing countries. A crucial consideration under the TRIPS compulsory licensing option is the 'adequate remuneration' paid. A theoretical and empirical analysis shows that the royalties set under past compulsory licenses have been much lower than those that would be established under the 'foregone profits' standard of US patent law. To respect comparative advantage in the supply of licensed drugs, the TRIPS language requiring that compulsory licensing be predominantly for domestic supply needs clarification. The multinational drug pricing strategy that best combines equity with coverage of R&D costs is a variant of Ramsey pricing, under which prices are much lower in nations with low ability to pay and-or high price elasticities of demand than in wealthy nations. Statistical evidence on the prices of 15 AIDS drugs in 18 low- and medium-income nations reveals that tendencies toward Ramsey pricing were at best weak. To encourage Ramsey pricing, parallel exports should be barred from low-income nations, and price controls should not benchmark the prices charged in low-income nations. Outright donation can also enhance the supply of drugs to low-income nations. A quantitative analysis shows that when the marginal cost of production is low relative to 'inventoriable' average cost, donations can actually enhance a drug producer's after-tax profits under US tax laws. Minor tax law changes to enhance donation incentives are suggested. Copyright Oxford University Press 2002, Oxford University Press.
To our knowledge, this item is not available for
download. To find whether it is available, there are three
1. Check below under "Related research" whether another version of this item is available online.
2. Check on the provider's web page whether it is in fact available.
3. Perform a search for a similarly titled item that would be available.
Volume (Year): 5 (2002)
Issue (Month): 4 (December)
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Fax: 01865 267 985
Web page: http://www.jiel.oupjournals.org/Email:
|Order Information:||Web: http://www.oup.co.uk/journals|
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:oup:jieclw:v:5:y:2002:i:4:p:913-939. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Oxford University Press)or (Christopher F. Baum)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.