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The Evolution of Stock Market Efficiency in the US: A Non-Bayesian Time-Varying Model Approach


  • Mikio Ito
  • Akihiko Noda
  • Tatsuma Wada


A non-Bayesian time-varying model is developed by introducing the concept of the degree of market efficiency that varies over time. This model may be seen as a reflection of the idea that continuous technological progress alters the trading environment over time. With new methodologies and a new measure of the degree of market efficiency, we examine whether the US stock market evolves over time. In particular, a time-varying autoregressive (TV-AR) model is employed. Our main findings are: (i) the US stock market has evolved over time and the degree of market efficiency has cyclical fluctuations with a considerably long periodicity, from 30 to 40 years; and (ii) the US stock market has been efficient with the exception of four times in our sample period: during the long-recession of 1873-1879; the recession of 1902-1904; the New Deal era; and the recession of 1957-1958 and soon after it. It is then shown that our results are partly consistent with the view of behavioral finance.

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  • Mikio Ito & Akihiko Noda & Tatsuma Wada, 2012. "The Evolution of Stock Market Efficiency in the US: A Non-Bayesian Time-Varying Model Approach," Papers 1202.0100,, revised Aug 2015.
  • Handle: RePEc:arx:papers:1202.0100

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Bénédicte Vidaillet & V. D'Estaintot & P. Abécassis, 2005. "Introduction," Post-Print hal-00287137, HAL.
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    Cited by:

    1. Noda, Akihiko, 2016. "A test of the adaptive market hypothesis using a time-varying AR model in Japan," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 17(C), pages 66-71.
    2. Lanouar Charfeddine & Karim Ben Khediri & Goodness C. Aye & Rangan Gupta, 2017. "Time-Varying Efficiency of Developed and Emerging Bond Markets: Evidence from Long-Spans of Historical Data," Working Papers 201771, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
    3. Ito, Mikio & Maeda, Kiyotaka & Noda, Akihiko, 2016. "Market efficiency and government interventions in prewar Japanese rice futures markets," Financial History Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 23(03), pages 325-346, December.
    4. Grossman, Richard, 2017. "Stocks for the Long Run: New Monthly Indices of British Equities, 1869-1929," CEPR Discussion Papers 12121, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Mikio Ito & Kiyotaka Maeda & Akihiko Noda, 2017. "Discretion versus Policy Rules in Futures Markets: A Case of the Osaka-Dojima Rice Exchange, 1914-1939," Papers 1704.00985,, revised Jan 2018.
    6. Taylor, Nick, 2014. "The rise and fall of technical trading rule success," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 286-302.
    7. Urquhart, Andrew & McGroarty, Frank, 2016. "Are stock markets really efficient? Evidence of the adaptive market hypothesis," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 39-49.
    8. Mikio Ito & Kiyotaka Maeda & Akihiko Noda, 2014. "The Futures Premium and Rice Market Efficiency in Prewar Japan," Papers 1404.5381,, revised Sep 2017.
    9. Rahman, Md. Lutfur & Lee, Doowon & Shamsuddin, Abul, 2017. "Time-varying return predictability in South Asian equity markets," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 179-200.

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