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Children In Brazil: Health, Education And Work

  • Carine Milcent
  • Jack Huguenin
  • Danielle Carusi-Machado

In Brazil, even though school participation is compulsory for children between 7 to 14 years old, some of them are not enrolled in the education system. One of the main reasons is their participation to the work market that may have an impact on their health. Moreover, child's school attendance in public schools usually insures a meal to child but for children working, they have to accumulate two journeys: school and job. So, child's health could be explained by both, school attendance and work market participation. In addition, problems related to school attendance and school progress could be related to child work or his health. Therefore, we cannot explore determinants of one of these components school attendance, health and child work without studying their interactions. In this paper, we use the database Living Standards Measurement Study Survey 1996/1997 (Pesquisa de Padrões de Vida - PPV) to look at this interactions. It appears that child's labor and school attendance have a very strong correlation. School attendance has a negative impact in child's probability to participate in labor market. For instance, child ´s labor market affects negatively child ´s probability to evaluate his health as good and excellent. We also note that school attendance does not have a significant impact in child ´s health evaluation. The main conclusion of our article is that the development of human capital should consider together health and education. A policy focusing only in education, as incentives to go to school, does not seem to be sufficient to improve child's health. Also, government should also consider the population at risk, as children from poor families, living in worse conditions and obliged to work.

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Paper provided by ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics] in its series Anais do XXXIII Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 33th Brazilian Economics Meeting] with number 173.

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Date of creation: 2005
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Handle: RePEc:anp:en2005:173
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  1. Denisard Alves & Walter Belluzzo, 2005. "Child Health and Infant Mortality in Brazil," Research Department Publications 3187, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  2. Jacoby, Hanan G, 1994. "Borrowing Constraints and Progress through School: Evidence from Peru," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 76(1), pages 151-60, February.
  3. Naercio Menezes-Filho & Reynaldo Fernandez & Paulo Picchetti & Ricardo Paes de Barros & Carlos Henrique Corseuil & Miguel Fogel & Daniel Santos & Simone Wajnman & Maria Carolina Leme, 2002. "Adolescents in Latin America and the Caribbean: Examining Time Allocation Decisions with Cross-Country Data," Research Department Publications 3163, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  4. Gourieroux, C & Laffont, J J & Monfort, A, 1980. "Coherency Conditions in Simultaneous Linear Equation Models with Endogenous Switching Regimes," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(3), pages 675-95, April.
  5. Kassouf, Ana L & Senauer, Benjamin, 1996. "Direct and Indirect Effects of Parental Education on Malnutrition among Children in Brazil: A Full Income Approach," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 44(4), pages 817-38, July.
  6. Debra Satz, 2003. "Child Labor: A Normative Perspective," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 17(2), pages 297-309, December.
  7. Kaushik Basu & Zafiris Tzannatos, 2003. "The Global Child Labor Problem: What Do We Know and What Can We Do?," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 17(2), pages 147-173, December.
  8. Glewwe, Paul & Jacoby, Hanan G, 1995. "An Economic Analysis of Delayed Primary School Enrollment in a Low Income Country: The Role of Early Childhood Nutrition," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 77(1), pages 156-69, February.
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